Feed aggregator

Amateurs used a Chinese satellite to photograph Earth and the moon

HIV and AIDS - пт, 2018-10-12 15:56
A tiny Chinese satellite in lunar orbit is designed to accept commands from amateurs, and has captured a new view of the Earth and its moon
Категории: Healthcare, Science and society

We can harness algae with magnets to deliver drugs inside our bodies

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - пт, 2018-10-12 12:51
If we attach tiny magnets to fast-swimming algae, we can load them up with drugs and steer them deep into the human body to deliver targeted medical therapies
Категории: Science and society

We can harness algae with magnets to deliver drugs inside our bodies

Genetics - пт, 2018-10-12 12:51
If we attach tiny magnets to fast-swimming algae, we can load them up with drugs and steer them deep into the human body to deliver targeted medical therapies
Категории: Biology

We can harness algae with magnets to deliver drugs inside our bodies

HIV and AIDS - пт, 2018-10-12 12:51
If we attach tiny magnets to fast-swimming algae, we can load them up with drugs and steer them deep into the human body to deliver targeted medical therapies
Категории: Healthcare, Science and society

Humongous fungus is older than Christianity and weighs 400 tonnes

Genetics - пт, 2018-10-12 12:00
A gigantic fungus that lives under the ground in a Michigan forest is even larger than initially estimated and may have been around for at least 2500 years
Категории: Biology

Humongous fungus is older than Christianity and weighs 400 tonnes

HIV and AIDS - пт, 2018-10-12 12:00
A gigantic fungus that lives under the ground in a Michigan forest is even larger than initially estimated and may have been around for at least 2500 years
Категории: Healthcare, Science and society

Humongous fungus is older than Christianity and weighs 400 tonnes

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - пт, 2018-10-12 12:00
A gigantic fungus that lives under the ground in a Michigan forest is even larger than initially estimated and may have been around for at least 2500 years
Категории: Science and society

The US wants a laser weapon that shouts at people before burning them

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - пт, 2018-10-12 11:00
The US Marines are developing a laser weapon that can shout at people from 100 metres away. It can also be turned up to deafen, dazzle or cause painful burns
Категории: Science and society

The US wants a laser weapon that shouts at people before burning them

Genetics - пт, 2018-10-12 11:00
The US Marines are developing a laser weapon that can shout at people from 100 metres away. It can also be turned up to deafen, dazzle or cause painful burns
Категории: Biology

The US wants a laser weapon that shouts at people before burning them

HIV and AIDS - пт, 2018-10-12 11:00
The US Marines are developing a laser weapon that can shout at people from 100 metres away. It can also be turned up to deafen, dazzle or cause painful burns
Категории: Healthcare, Science and society

Mice eat too much food if their great grandmother did the same

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - пт, 2018-10-12 02:01
When mice are given a high-fat diet their great grandchildren are more likely to put on weight – and they show a greater than expected taste for alcohol
Категории: Science and society

Mice eat too much food if their great grandmother did the same

Genetics - пт, 2018-10-12 02:01
When mice are given a high-fat diet their great grandchildren are more likely to put on weight – and they show a greater than expected taste for alcohol
Категории: Biology

Mice eat too much food if their great grandmother did the same

HIV and AIDS - пт, 2018-10-12 02:01
When mice are given a high-fat diet their great grandchildren are more likely to put on weight – and they show a greater than expected taste for alcohol
Категории: Healthcare, Science and society

Learning what to approach

PLOS Biology (new articles) - чт, 2018-10-11 23:00

by Neir Eshel, Elizabeth E. Steinberg

Most decisions share a common goal: maximize reward and minimize punishment. Achieving this goal requires learning which choices are likely to lead to favorable outcomes. Dopamine is essential for this process, enabling learning by signaling the difference between what we expect to get and what we actually get. Although all animals appear to use this dopamine prediction error circuit, some do so more than others, and this neural heterogeneity correlates with individual variability in behavior. In this issue of PLOS Biology, Lee and colleagues show that manipulating a simple task parameter can bias the animals’ behavioral strategy and modulate dopamine release, implying that how we learn is just as flexible as what we learn.
Категории: Biology, Journals

Partial homologies between sleep states in lizards, mammals, and birds suggest a complex evolution of sleep states in amniotes

PLOS Biology (new articles) - чт, 2018-10-11 23:00

by Paul-Antoine Libourel, Baptiste Barrillot, Sébastien Arthaud, Bertrand Massot, Anne-Laure Morel, Olivier Beuf, Anthony Herrel, Pierre-Hervé Luppi

It is crucial to determine whether rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and slow-wave sleep (SWS) (or non-REM sleep), identified in most mammals and birds, also exist in lizards, as they share a common ancestor with these groups. Recently, a study in the bearded dragon (P. vitticeps) reported states analogous to REM and SWS alternating in a surprisingly regular 80-s period, suggesting a common origin of the two sleep states across amniotes. We first confirmed these results in the bearded dragon with deep brain recordings and electro-oculogram (EOG) recordings. Then, to confirm a common origin and more finely characterize sleep in lizards, we developed a multiparametric approach in the tegu lizard, a species never recorded to date. We recorded EOG, electromyogram (EMG), heart rate, and local field potentials (LFPs) and included data on arousal thresholds, sleep deprivation, and pharmacological treatments with fluoxetine, a serotonin reuptake blocker that suppresses REM sleep in mammals. As in the bearded dragon, we demonstrate the existence of two sleep states in tegu lizards. However, no clear periodicity is apparent. The first sleep state (S1 sleep) showed high-amplitude isolated sharp waves, and the second sleep state (S2 sleep) displayed 15-Hz oscillations, isolated ocular movements, and a decrease in heart rate variability and muscle tone compared to S1. Fluoxetine treatment induced a significant decrease in S2 quantities and in the number of sharp waves in S1. Because S2 sleep is characterized by the presence of ocular movements and is inhibited by a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, as is REM sleep in birds and mammals, it might be analogous to this state. However, S2 displays a type of oscillation never previously reported and does not display a desynchronized electroencephalogram (EEG) as is observed in the bearded dragons, mammals, and birds. This suggests that the phenotype of sleep states and possibly their role can differ even between closely related species. Finally, our results suggest a common origin of two sleep states in amniotes. Yet, they also highlight a diversity of sleep phenotypes across lizards, demonstrating that the evolution of sleep states is more complex than previously thought.
Категории: Biology, Journals

Police can now use millions more people’s DNA to find criminals

Genetics - чт, 2018-10-11 20:00
Consumer genetic databases are becoming powerful tools for identifying criminals, and a new technique could link you to forensic data held by US police
Категории: Biology

Police can now use millions more people’s DNA to find criminals

HIV and AIDS - чт, 2018-10-11 20:00
Consumer genetic databases are becoming powerful tools for identifying criminals, and a new technique could link you to forensic data held by US police
Категории: Healthcare, Science and society

Police can now use millions more people’s DNA to find criminals

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - чт, 2018-10-11 20:00
Consumer genetic databases are becoming powerful tools for identifying criminals, and a new technique could link you to forensic data held by US police
Категории: Science and society

Soyuz crash could kill the ISS and set space flight back decades

Genetics - чт, 2018-10-11 18:29
A Russian Soyuz spacecraft has crash landed after an attempted launch to the International Space Station, which may throw a wrench in space flight plans
Категории: Biology

Soyuz crash could kill the ISS and set space flight back decades

HIV and AIDS - чт, 2018-10-11 18:29
A Russian Soyuz spacecraft has crash landed after an attempted launch to the International Space Station, which may throw a wrench in space flight plans
Категории: Healthcare, Science and society