Feed aggregator

Cybersecurity is failing us – and will continue to do so unless we act

HIV and AIDS - пн, 2018-08-13 12:00
Our current model of internet security is too vulnerable to the mistakes of individual programmers. Better alternatives exist – and should be deployed
Категории: Healthcare, Science and society

Cybersecurity is failing us – and will continue to do so unless we act

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - пн, 2018-08-13 12:00
Our current model of internet security is too vulnerable to the mistakes of individual programmers. Better alternatives exist – and should be deployed
Категории: Science and society

Cybersecurity is failing us – and will continue to do so unless we act

Genetics - пн, 2018-08-13 12:00
Our current model of internet security is too vulnerable to the mistakes of individual programmers. Better alternatives exist – and should be deployed
Категории: Biology

Buzz: A beautiful book shows why modern bees are hippy wasps at heart

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - пн, 2018-08-13 11:00
A beautifully illustrated new book details the evolutionary path that created modern bees from their ancient wasp ancestors - and why the apians’ future is uncertain
Категории: Science and society

Buzz: A beautiful book shows why modern bees are hippy wasps at heart

Genetics - пн, 2018-08-13 11:00
A beautifully illustrated new book details the evolutionary path that created modern bees from their ancient wasp ancestors - and why the apians’ future is uncertain
Категории: Biology

Allergy explosion: They are on the rise, and here’s why

Genetics - пн, 2018-08-13 11:00
Banning nuts on planes and in schools may seem like hysteria, but there's good reason: allergies are becoming more common. And you may not realise how you're affected
Категории: Biology

Allergy explosion: They are on the rise, and here’s why

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - пн, 2018-08-13 11:00
Banning nuts on planes and in schools may seem like hysteria, but there's good reason: allergies are becoming more common. And you may not realise how you're affected
Категории: Science and society

Tools reveal Easter Island may not have had a societal collapse

HIV and AIDS - пн, 2018-08-13 07:00
Tools used to make Easter Island’s famous statues have yielded a clue that suggests the Rapa Nui inhabitants that made them all got along with each other
Категории: Healthcare, Science and society

Tools reveal Easter Island may not have had a societal collapse

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - пн, 2018-08-13 07:00
Tools used to make Easter Island’s famous statues have yielded a clue that suggests the Rapa Nui inhabitants that made them all got along with each other
Категории: Science and society

Tools reveal Easter Island may not have had a societal collapse

Genetics - пн, 2018-08-13 07:00
Tools used to make Easter Island’s famous statues have yielded a clue that suggests the Rapa Nui inhabitants that made them all got along with each other
Категории: Biology

Don’t miss: Taxidermied rabbits, mucky biology and the digital future

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - сб, 2018-08-11 16:00
See a taxidermied rabbit in a silver goblet at show about human-animal hybrids, read about biology's muckier side, and listen to tough talk about our digital future
Категории: Science and society

Don’t miss: Taxidermied rabbits, mucky biology and the digital future

Genetics - сб, 2018-08-11 16:00
See a taxidermied rabbit in a silver goblet at show about human-animal hybrids, read about biology's muckier side, and listen to tough talk about our digital future
Категории: Biology

Don’t Miss: Taxidermied rabbits, mucky biology and the digital future

HIV and AIDS - сб, 2018-08-11 16:00
See a taxidermied rabbit in a silver goblet at show about human-animal hybrids, read about biology's muckier side, and listen to tough talk about our digital future
Категории: Healthcare, Science and society

Heterogeneity and longevity of antibody memory to viruses and vaccines

PLOS Biology (new articles) - пт, 2018-08-10 23:00

by Alice Antia, Hasan Ahmed, Andreas Handel, Nichole E. Carlson, Ian J. Amanna, Rustom Antia, Mark Slifka

Determining the duration of protective immunity requires quantifying the magnitude and rate of loss of antibodies to different virus and vaccine antigens. A key complication is heterogeneity in both the magnitude and decay rate of responses of different individuals to a given vaccine, as well as of a given individual to different vaccines. We analyzed longitudinal data on antibody titers in 45 individuals to characterize the extent of this heterogeneity and used models to determine how it affected the longevity of protective immunity to measles, rubella, vaccinia, tetanus, and diphtheria. Our analysis showed that the magnitude of responses in different individuals varied between 12- and 200-fold (95% coverage) depending on the antigen. Heterogeneity in the magnitude and decay rate contribute comparably to variation in the longevity of protective immunity between different individuals. We found that some individuals have, on average, slightly longer-lasting memory than others—on average, they have higher antibody levels with slower decay rates. We identified different patterns for the loss of protective levels of antibodies to different vaccine and virus antigens. Specifically, we found that for the first 25 to 50 years, virtually all individuals have protective antibody titers against diphtheria and tetanus, respectively, but about 10% of the population subsequently lose protective immunity per decade. In contrast, at the outset, not all individuals had protective titers against measles, rubella, and vaccinia. However, these antibody titers wane much more slowly, with a loss of protective immunity in only 1% to 3% of the population per decade. Our results highlight the importance of long-term longitudinal studies for estimating the duration of protective immunity and suggest both how vaccines might be improved and how boosting schedules might be reevaluated.
Категории: Biology, Journals

A non-cell-autonomous actin redistribution enables isotropic retinal growth

PLOS Biology (new articles) - пт, 2018-08-10 23:00

by Marija Matejčić, Guillaume Salbreux, Caren Norden

Tissue shape is often established early in development and needs to be scaled isotropically during growth. However, the cellular contributors and ways by which cells interact tissue-wide to enable coordinated isotropic tissue scaling are not yet understood. Here, we follow cell and tissue shape changes in the zebrafish retinal neuroepithelium, which forms a cup with a smooth surface early in development and maintains this architecture as it grows. By combining 3D analysis and theory, we show how a global increase in cell height can maintain tissue shape during growth. Timely cell height increase occurs concurrently with a non-cell-autonomous actin redistribution. Blocking actin redistribution and cell height increase perturbs isotropic scaling and leads to disturbed, folded tissue shape. Taken together, our data show how global changes in cell shape enable isotropic growth of the developing retinal neuroepithelium, a concept that could also apply to other systems.
Категории: Biology, Journals

Transcriptional programming of lipid and amino acid metabolism by the skeletal muscle circadian clock

PLOS Biology (new articles) - пт, 2018-08-10 23:00

by Kenneth Allen Dyar, Michaël Jean Hubert, Ashfaq Ali Mir, Stefano Ciciliot, Dominik Lutter, Franziska Greulich, Fabiana Quagliarini, Maximilian Kleinert, Katrin Fischer, Thomas Oliver Eichmann, Lauren Emily Wright, Marcia Ivonne Peña Paz, Alberto Casarin, Vanessa Pertegato, Vanina Romanello, Mattia Albiero, Sara Mazzucco, Rosario Rizzuto, Leonardo Salviati, Gianni Biolo, Bert Blaauw, Stefano Schiaffino, N. Henriette Uhlenhaut

Circadian clocks are fundamental physiological regulators of energy homeostasis, but direct transcriptional targets of the muscle clock machinery are unknown. To understand how the muscle clock directs rhythmic metabolism, we determined genome-wide binding of the master clock regulators brain and muscle ARNT-like protein 1 (BMAL1) and REV-ERBα in murine muscles. Integrating occupancy with 24-hr gene expression and metabolomics after muscle-specific loss of BMAL1 and REV-ERBα, here we unravel novel molecular mechanisms connecting muscle clock function to daily cycles of lipid and protein metabolism. Validating BMAL1 and REV-ERBα targets using luciferase assays and in vivo rescue, we demonstrate how a major role of the muscle clock is to promote diurnal cycles of neutral lipid storage while coordinately inhibiting lipid and protein catabolism prior to awakening. This occurs by BMAL1-dependent activation of Dgat2 and REV-ERBα-dependent repression of major targets involved in lipid metabolism and protein turnover (MuRF-1, Atrogin-1). Accordingly, muscle-specific loss of BMAL1 is associated with metabolic inefficiency, impaired muscle triglyceride biosynthesis, and accumulation of bioactive lipids and amino acids. Taken together, our data provide a comprehensive overview of how genomic binding of BMAL1 and REV-ERBα is related to temporal changes in gene expression and metabolite fluctuations.
Категории: Biology, Journals

Gluten-free dogs? Pets deserve better than this evidence-free fad

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - пт, 2018-08-10 18:35
Animal owners are increasingly falling for potentially risky fad pet diets or homeopathic alternatives to vaccines, warn vets Danny Chambers and Zoe Belshaw
Категории: Science and society

Gluten-free dogs? Pets deserve better than this evidence-free fad

Genetics - пт, 2018-08-10 18:35
Animal owners are increasingly falling for potentially risky fad pet diets or homeopathic alternatives to vaccines, warn vets Danny Chambers and Zoe Belshaw
Категории: Biology

Gluten-free dogs? Pets deserve better than this evidence-free fad

HIV and AIDS - пт, 2018-08-10 18:35
Animal owners are increasingly falling for potentially risky fad pet diets or homeopathic alternatives to vaccines, warn vets Danny Chambers and Zoe Belshaw
Категории: Healthcare, Science and society

Fortnite is coming to Android, but players risk downloading malware

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - пт, 2018-08-10 17:14
When blockbuster game Fortnite hits Android phones, gamers will be able to get it outside Google Play, which could leave them vulnerable to scams
Категории: Science and society