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Electric chewing gum zaps your tongue to create a virtual flavour hit

Genetics - вт, 2018-10-16 08:00
An 'unlimited chewing gum' uses an electric charge to trick you into experiencing flavours – and they don’t fade in the way chewing gum flavour usually does
Категории: Biology

Electric chewing gum zaps your tongue to create a virtual flavour hit

HIV and AIDS - вт, 2018-10-16 08:00
An 'unlimited chewing gum' uses an electric charge to trick you into experiencing flavours – and they don’t fade in the way chewing gum flavour usually does
Категории: Healthcare, Science and society

National bans on smacking children linked to less teenage violence

Genetics - вт, 2018-10-16 00:30
A survey has found that teenagers get into more fights in countries where it is legal to spank children, but there could be several explanations for the link
Категории: Biology

National bans on smacking children linked to less teenage violence

HIV and AIDS - вт, 2018-10-16 00:30
A survey has found that teenagers get into more fights in countries where it is legal to spank children, but there could be several explanations for the link
Категории: Healthcare, Science and society

National bans on smacking children linked to less teenage violence

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - вт, 2018-10-16 00:30
A survey has found that teenagers get into more fights in countries where it is legal to spank children, but there could be several explanations for the link
Категории: Science and society

Fifteen years in, what next for <i>PLOS Biology</i>?

PLOS Biology (new articles) - пн, 2018-10-15 23:00

by The PLOS Biology Staff Editors

As we celebrate our anniversary, the PLOS Biology editors discuss recent initiatives taken by the journal (meta-research, complementary research policy, preprint posting, short reports, methods and resources, data policy, protocols.io) and look ahead to the next fifteen years.
Категории: Biology, Journals

Training in experimental design and statistics is essential: Response to Jordan

PLOS Biology (new articles) - пн, 2018-10-15 23:00

by Stanley E. Lazic, Charlie J. Clarke-Williams, Marcus R. Munafò

This Formal Comment responds to Jordan et al., and stresses that if scientific findings are to be robust, training in experimental design and statistics is critical to ensure that research questions, design considerations, and analyses are aligned.
Категории: Biology, Journals

Population sampling affects pseudoreplication

PLOS Biology (new articles) - пн, 2018-10-15 23:00

by Crispin Y. Jordan

Категории: Biology, Journals

High-resolution frequency tuning but not temporal coding in the human cochlea

PLOS Biology (new articles) - пн, 2018-10-15 23:00

by Eric Verschooten, Christian Desloovere, Philip X. Joris

Frequency tuning and phase-locking are two fundamental properties generated in the cochlea, enabling but also limiting the coding of sounds by the auditory nerve (AN). In humans, these limits are unknown, but high resolution has been postulated for both properties. Electrophysiological recordings from the AN of normal-hearing volunteers indicate that human frequency tuning, but not phase-locking, exceeds the resolution observed in animal models.
Категории: Biology, Journals

Multimodal sensory information is represented by a combinatorial code in a sensorimotor system

PLOS Biology (new articles) - пн, 2018-10-15 23:00

by Rosangela Follmann, Christopher John Goldsmith, Wolfgang Stein

A ubiquitous feature of the nervous system is the processing of simultaneously arriving sensory inputs from different modalities. Yet, because of the difficulties of monitoring large populations of neurons with the single resolution required to determine their sensory responses, the cellular mechanisms of how populations of neurons encode different sensory modalities often remain enigmatic. We studied multimodal information encoding in a small sensorimotor system of the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system that drives rhythmic motor activity for the processing of food. This system is experimentally advantageous, as it produces a fictive behavioral output in vitro, and distinct sensory modalities can be selectively activated. It has the additional advantage that all sensory information is routed through a hub ganglion, the commissural ganglion, a structure with fewer than 220 neurons. Using optical imaging of a population of commissural neurons to track each individual neuron's response across sensory modalities, we provide evidence that multimodal information is encoded via a combinatorial code of recruited neurons. By selectively stimulating chemosensory and mechanosensory inputs that are functionally important for processing of food, we find that these two modalities were processed in a distributed network comprising the majority of commissural neurons imaged. In a total of 12 commissural ganglia, we show that 98% of all imaged neurons were involved in sensory processing, with the two modalities being processed by a highly overlapping set of neurons. Of these, 80% were multimodal, 18% were unimodal, and only 2% of the neurons did not respond to either modality. Differences between modalities were represented by the identities of the neurons participating in each sensory condition and by differences in response sign (excitation versus inhibition), with 46% changing their responses in the other modality. Consistent with the hypothesis that the commissural network encodes different sensory conditions in the combination of activated neurons, a new combination of excitation and inhibition was found when both pathways were activated simultaneously. The responses to this bimodal condition were distinct from either unimodal condition, and for 30% of the neurons, they were not predictive from the individual unimodal responses. Thus, in a sensorimotor network, different sensory modalities are encoded using a combinatorial code of neurons that are activated or inhibited. This provides motor networks with the ability to differentially respond to categorically different sensory conditions and may serve as a model to understand higher-level processing of multimodal information.
Категории: Biology, Journals

Will there be beer shortages as the world warms? Well, maybe

Genetics - пн, 2018-10-15 17:00
Predictions of beer shortages and rocketing prices as extreme weather hits barley production should not be taken too literally but do highlight a very real problem
Категории: Biology

Earliest ever animal fossil is a 660-million-year-old sponge

Genetics - пн, 2018-10-15 17:00
Chemical evidence locked in rocks and oil suggests that the first animals were alive 100 million years earlier than we thought from fossils
Категории: Biology

Will there be beer shortages as the world warms? Well, maybe

HIV and AIDS - пн, 2018-10-15 17:00
Predictions of beer shortages and rocketing prices as extreme weather hits barley production should not be taken too literally but do highlight a very real problem
Категории: Healthcare, Science and society

Earliest ever animal fossil is a 660-million-year-old sponge

HIV and AIDS - пн, 2018-10-15 17:00
Chemical evidence locked in rocks and oil suggests that the first animals were alive 100 million years earlier than we thought from fossils
Категории: Healthcare, Science and society

Will there be beer shortages as the world warms? Well, maybe

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - пн, 2018-10-15 17:00
Predictions of beer shortages and rocketing prices as extreme weather hits barley production should not be taken too literally but do highlight a very real problem
Категории: Science and society

Earliest ever animal fossil is a 660-million-year-old sponge

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - пн, 2018-10-15 17:00
Chemical evidence locked in rocks and oil suggests that the first animals were alive 100 million years earlier than we thought from fossils
Категории: Science and society

Rabbit-killing virus may have mutated to kill hares too

Genetics - пн, 2018-10-15 13:44
Brown hares are turning up dead across the UK, raising fears that myxomatosis – the rabbit infection in ‘Watership Down’ - may have mutated to target hares
Категории: Biology

Rabbit-killing virus may have mutated to kill hares too

HIV and AIDS - пн, 2018-10-15 13:44
Brown hares are turning up dead across the UK, raising fears that myxomatosis – the rabbit infection in ‘Watership Down’ - may have mutated to target hares
Категории: Healthcare, Science and society

Rabbit-killing virus may have mutated to kill hares too

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - пн, 2018-10-15 13:44
Brown hares are turning up dead across the UK, raising fears that myxomatosis – the rabbit infection in ‘Watership Down’ - may have mutated to target hares
Категории: Science and society

Wheat flour to be fortified with folic acid in the UK

Genetics - пн, 2018-10-15 13:22
Folic acid helps prevent birth defects but is most effective taken around the time of conception. Adding it to wheat could benefit unplanned pregnancies
Категории: Biology