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Frankenstein planets may form from the wreckage of dead worlds

HIV and AIDS - чт, 2018-05-17 17:12
When stars die, they can explode and destroy any planets nearby. But new worlds could arise out of the debris and some could reach the mass of 10 Earths
Категории: Healthcare, Science and society

Mystery of the cosmic dawn: What’s eating the first starlight?

Genetics - чт, 2018-05-17 17:00
A shoestring experiment in the Australian outback has seen the signal of the very first stars – and a weird effect astronomers are struggling to explain
Категории: Biology

Mystery of the cosmic dawn: What’s eating the first starlight?

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - чт, 2018-05-17 17:00
A shoestring experiment in the Australian outback has seen the signal of the very first stars – and a weird effect astronomers are struggling to explain
Категории: Science and society

How tech bugs could be killing thousands in our hospitals

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - чт, 2018-05-17 14:00
From falsely calculated drug doses to data-entry error, the true toll of medical IT glitches is only just becoming apparent – but there are obvious fixes
Категории: Science and society

How tech bugs could be killing thousands in our hospitals

Genetics - чт, 2018-05-17 14:00
From falsely calculated drug doses to data-entry error, the true toll of medical IT glitches is only just becoming apparent – but there are obvious fixes
Категории: Biology

Harsh: Europe’s cannabis died just as the first farmers arrived

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - чт, 2018-05-17 13:45
Cannabis – the source of the drug marijuana – virtually disappeared from Europe just as farmers arrived, so they didn’t get the chance to grow it for another 4500 years
Категории: Science and society

Drones plus AI help to spot sick trees and plants in time

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - чт, 2018-05-17 13:45
Drones fitted with multispectral cameras are scanning forests for beetle attack, and orchards and vineyards for signs of disease before it’s too late
Категории: Science and society

Harsh: Europe’s cannabis died just as the first farmers arrived

Genetics - чт, 2018-05-17 13:45
Cannabis – the source of the drug marijuana – virtually disappeared from Europe just as farmers arrived, so they didn’t get the chance to grow it for another 4500 years
Категории: Biology

Drones plus AI help to spot sick trees and plants in time

Genetics - чт, 2018-05-17 13:45
Drones fitted with multispectral cameras are scanning forests for beetle attack, and orchards and vineyards for signs of disease before it’s too late
Категории: Biology

Harsh: Europe’s cannabis died just as the first farmers arrived

HIV and AIDS - чт, 2018-05-17 13:45
Cannabis – the source of the drug marijuana – virtually disappeared from Europe just as farmers arrived, so they didn’t get the chance to grow it for another 4500 years
Категории: Healthcare, Science and society

Drones plus AI help to spot sick trees and plants in time

HIV and AIDS - чт, 2018-05-17 13:45
Drones fitted with multispectral cameras are scanning forests for beetle attack, and orchards and vineyards for signs of disease before it’s too late
Категории: Healthcare, Science and society

Aha! What happens in your brain when you have a lightbulb moment

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - чт, 2018-05-17 08:00
We now know what happens in your brain when inspiration strikes. The insight may lead to new brain stimulation techniques that put you in problem-solving mode
Категории: Science and society

Aha! What happens in your brain when you have a lightbulb moment

Genetics - чт, 2018-05-17 08:00
We now know what happens in your brain when inspiration strikes. The insight may lead to new brain stimulation techniques that put you in problem-solving mode
Категории: Biology

Aha! What happens in your brain when you have a lightbulb moment

HIV and AIDS - чт, 2018-05-17 08:00
We now know what happens in your brain when inspiration strikes. The insight may lead to new brain stimulation techniques that put you in problem-solving mode
Категории: Healthcare, Science and society

The US isn’t fertile enough to sustain itself without immigrants

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - чт, 2018-05-17 07:01
For every 1000 women in the US, only around 1760 children are born, meaning the US population cannot replace itself without immigration
Категории: Science and society

The US isn’t fertile enough to sustain itself without immigrants

Genetics - чт, 2018-05-17 07:01
For every 1000 women in the US, only around 1760 children are born, meaning the US population cannot replace itself without immigration
Категории: Biology

The US isn’t fertile enough to sustain itself without immigrants

HIV and AIDS - чт, 2018-05-17 07:01
For every 1000 women in the US, only around 1760 children are born, meaning the US population cannot replace itself without immigration
Категории: Healthcare, Science and society

Do plants have a segregated germline?

PLOS Biology (new articles) - ср, 2018-05-16 23:00

by Robert Lanfear

For the last 100 years, it has been uncontroversial to state that the plant germline is set aside late in development, but there is surprisingly little evidence to support this view. In contrast, much evolutionary theory and several recent empirical studies seem to suggest the opposite—that the germlines of some and perhaps most plants may be set aside early in development. But is this really the case? How much does it matter? How can we reconcile the new evidence with existing knowledge of plant development? And is there a way to reliably establish the timing of germline segregation in both model and nonmodel plants? Answering these questions is vital to understanding one of the most fundamental aspects of plant development and evolution.
Категории: Biology, Journals

High-dimensional single-cell phenotyping reveals extensive haploinsufficiency

PLOS Biology (new articles) - ср, 2018-05-16 23:00

by Shinsuke Ohnuki, Yoshikazu Ohya

Haploinsufficiency, a dominant phenotype caused by a heterozygous loss-of-function mutation, has been rarely observed. However, high-dimensional single-cell phenotyping of yeast morphological characteristics revealed haploinsufficiency phenotypes for more than half of 1,112 essential genes under optimal growth conditions. Additionally, 40% of the essential genes with no obvious phenotype under optimal growth conditions displayed haploinsufficiency under severe growth conditions. Haploinsufficiency was detected more frequently in essential genes than in nonessential genes. Similar haploinsufficiency phenotypes were observed mostly in mutants with heterozygous deletion of functionally related genes, suggesting that haploinsufficiency phenotypes were caused by functional defects of the genes. A global view of the gene network was presented based on the similarities of the haploinsufficiency phenotypes. Our dataset contains rich information regarding essential gene functions, providing evidence that single-cell phenotyping is a powerful approach, even in the heterozygous condition, for analyzing complex biological systems.
Категории: Biology, Journals

Tissue-specific activities of the Fat1 cadherin cooperate to control neuromuscular morphogenesis

PLOS Biology (new articles) - ср, 2018-05-16 23:00

by Françoise Helmbacher

Muscle morphogenesis is tightly coupled with that of motor neurons (MNs). Both MNs and muscle progenitors simultaneously explore the surrounding tissues while exchanging reciprocal signals to tune their behaviors. We previously identified the Fat1 cadherin as a regulator of muscle morphogenesis and showed that it is required in the myogenic lineage to control the polarity of progenitor migration. To expand our knowledge on how Fat1 exerts its tissue-morphogenesis regulator activity, we dissected its functions by tissue-specific genetic ablation. An emblematic example of muscle under such morphogenetic control is the cutaneous maximus (CM) muscle, a flat subcutaneous muscle in which progenitor migration is physically separated from the process of myogenic differentiation but tightly associated with elongating axons of its partner MNs. Here, we show that constitutive Fat1 disruption interferes with expansion and differentiation of the CM muscle, with its motor innervation and with specification of its associated MN pool. Fat1 is expressed in muscle progenitors, in associated mesenchymal cells, and in MN subsets, including the CM-innervating pool. We identify mesenchyme-derived connective tissue (CT) as a cell type in which Fat1 activity is required for the non–cell-autonomous control of CM muscle progenitor spreading, myogenic differentiation, motor innervation, and for motor pool specification. In parallel, Fat1 is required in MNs to promote their axonal growth and specification, indirectly influencing muscle progenitor progression. These results illustrate how Fat1 coordinates the coupling of muscular and neuronal morphogenesis by playing distinct but complementary actions in several cell types.
Категории: Biology, Journals