Biology

Is North Korea really scrapping its nuclear weapons programme?

Genetics - ср, 2018-07-25 17:00
Satellite images taken on 20 July suggest North Korea may be dismantling two important features of its intercontinental ballistic missiles programme
Категории: Biology

Intensive blood pressure treatment may lower dementia risk

Genetics - ср, 2018-07-25 16:00
People who receive stronger-than-normal blood pressure treatments have been found to be 19 per cent less likely to later develop signs of cognitive impairment
Категории: Biology

Face recognition screens egg donors so your child will look like you

Genetics - ср, 2018-07-25 15:23
A clinic in Barcelona is using face recognition technology to match people with anonymous egg donors who look just like them
Категории: Biology

It’s official: gene-edited products will be classed as GMOs in the EU

Genetics - ср, 2018-07-25 14:41
The European Court of Justice has just ruled that organisms created by any new methods for tweaking the DNA are subject to the same laws that govern GM ones
Категории: Biology

‘Amazing dragon’ find in China rewrites evolution of massive dinosaurs

Genetics - ср, 2018-07-25 13:23
Fossils discovered in China may change the story of the evolution of sauropods like Diplodocus and how they spread around the world
Категории: Biology

Glucotypes reveal new patterns of glucose dysregulation

PLOS Biology (new articles) - вт, 2018-07-24 23:00

by Heather Hall, Dalia Perelman, Alessandra Breschi, Patricia Limcaoco, Ryan Kellogg, Tracey McLaughlin, Michael Snyder

Diabetes is an increasing problem worldwide; almost 30 million people, nearly 10% of the population, in the United States are diagnosed with diabetes. Another 84 million are prediabetic, and without intervention, up to 70% of these individuals may progress to type 2 diabetes. Current methods for quantifying blood glucose dysregulation in diabetes and prediabetes are limited by reliance on single-time-point measurements or on average measures of overall glycemia and neglect glucose dynamics. We have used continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) to evaluate the frequency with which individuals demonstrate elevations in postprandial glucose, the types of patterns, and how patterns vary between individuals given an identical nutrient challenge. Measurement of insulin resistance and secretion highlights the fact that the physiology underlying dysglycemia is highly variable between individuals. We developed an analytical framework that can group individuals according to specific patterns of glycemic responses called “glucotypes” that reveal heterogeneity, or subphenotypes, within traditional diagnostic categories of glucose regulation. Importantly, we found that even individuals considered normoglycemic by standard measures exhibit high glucose variability using CGM, with glucose levels reaching prediabetic and diabetic ranges 15% and 2% of the time, respectively. We thus show that glucose dysregulation, as characterized by CGM, is more prevalent and heterogeneous than previously thought and can affect individuals considered normoglycemic by standard measures, and specific patterns of glycemic responses reflect variable underlying physiology. The interindividual variability in glycemic responses to standardized meals also highlights the personal nature of glucose regulation. Through extensive phenotyping, we developed a model for identifying potential mechanisms of personal glucose dysregulation and built a webtool for visualizing a user-uploaded CGM profile and classifying individualized glucose patterns into glucotypes.
Категории: Biology, Journals

How an AI expert’s cancer diagnosis may lead to a treatment revolution

Genetics - вт, 2018-07-24 20:00
When Regina Barzilay was diagnosed with breast cancer, she was shocked at how haphazard the process was – and vowed to use her expertise to change things
Категории: Biology

We might only see time because we can’t think in quantum physics

Genetics - вт, 2018-07-24 17:44
Humans need much more information to study a problem backwards in time than forwards, but a quantum computer can ignore the flow of time all together
Категории: Biology

HPV vaccine to be offered to all children in England, not just girls

Genetics - вт, 2018-07-24 15:48
Following similar decisions in Scotland and Wales, boys in England will now be offered the HPV vaccine, which protects against several types of cancer
Категории: Biology

Thousands dead or homeless after hydroelectric dam collapses in Laos

Genetics - вт, 2018-07-24 15:15
The dam in Laos has collapsed, releasing large amounts of water and sweeping away houses and leaving more than 6000 homeless
Категории: Biology

Warming Arctic could be behind heatwave sweeping northern hemisphere

Genetics - вт, 2018-07-24 14:01
Deadly heatwaves could continue for weeks, and possibly months, across much of the northern hemisphere, meteorologists predicted this week
Категории: Biology

The truth about intelligence: What makes someone smarter than others?

Genetics - вт, 2018-07-24 13:00
Our search for genes associated with brainpower is starting to bear fruit, but isn’t the whole story. Your IQ is influenced by many subtle factors
Категории: Biology

At least 49 people killed in Greece’s deadliest wildfires in a decade

Genetics - вт, 2018-07-24 12:21
The deadliest blazes to hit Greece in more than a decade have seen wildfires fanned by high winds rage through resorts
Категории: Biology

Why we shouldn’t blame the world’s woes on the stupidity of others

Genetics - вт, 2018-07-24 11:00
It's easy to think the world is gripped by a collective failure of human intelligence. But the facts don't bear that out – and we should beware our own biases
Категории: Biology

This crocodile emerging from the gloom sure seems happy to see you

Genetics - вт, 2018-07-24 09:00
Smiling American crocodile shows off its teeth – but although specimens can grow 6 metres long, the species rarely launches unprovoked attacks on people
Категории: Biology

A virus-acquired host cytokine controls systemic aging by antagonizing apoptosis

PLOS Biology (new articles) - пн, 2018-07-23 23:00

by Mohamed Mlih, Mobina Khericha, Christine Birdwell, A. Phillip West, Jason Karpac

Aging is characterized by degeneration of unique tissues. However, dissecting the interconnectedness of tissue aging remains a challenge. Here, we employ a muscle-specific DNA damage model in Drosophila to reveal secreted factors that influence systemic aging in distal tissues. Utilizing this model, we uncovered a cytokine—Diedel—that, when secreted from muscle or adipose, can attenuate age-related intestinal tissue degeneration by promoting proliferative homeostasis of stem cells. Diedel is both necessary and sufficient to limit tissue degeneration and regulate lifespan. Secreted homologs of Diedel are also found in viruses, having been acquired from host genomes. Focusing on potential mechanistic overlap between cellular aging and viral-host cell interactions, we found that Diedel is an inhibitor of apoptosis and can act as a systemic rheostat to modulate cell death during aging. These results highlight a key role for secreted antagonists of apoptosis in the systemic coordination of tissue aging.
Категории: Biology, Journals

Differential aging of growth plate cartilage underlies differences in bone length and thus helps determine skeletal proportions

PLOS Biology (new articles) - пн, 2018-07-23 23:00

by Julian C. Lui, Youn Hee Jee, Presley Garrison, James R. Iben, Shanna Yue, Michal Ad, Quang Nguyen, Bijal Kikani, Yoshiyuki Wakabayashi, Jeffrey Baron

Bones at different anatomical locations vary dramatically in size. For example, human femurs are 20-fold longer than the phalanges in the fingers and toes. The mechanisms responsible for these size differences are poorly understood. Bone elongation occurs at the growth plates and advances rapidly in early life but then progressively slows due to a developmental program termed “growth plate senescence.” This developmental program includes declines in cell proliferation and hypertrophy, depletion of cells in all growth plate zones, and extensive underlying changes in the expression of growth-regulating genes. Here, we show evidence that these functional, structural, and molecular senescent changes occur earlier in the growth plates of smaller bones (metacarpals, phalanges) than in the growth plates of larger bones (femurs, tibias) and that this differential aging contributes to the disparities in bone length. We also show evidence that the molecular mechanisms that underlie the differential aging between different bones involve modulation of critical paracrine regulatory pathways, including insulin-like growth factor (Igf), bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp), and Wingless and Int-1 (Wnt) signaling. Taken together, the findings reveal that the striking disparities in the lengths of different bones, which characterize normal mammalian skeletal proportions, is achieved in part by modulating the progression of growth plate senescence.
Категории: Biology, Journals

Roles of fibronectin isoforms in neonatal vascular development and matrix integrity

PLOS Biology (new articles) - пн, 2018-07-23 23:00

by Heena Kumra, Laetitia Sabatier, Amani Hassan, Takao Sakai, Deane F. Mosher, Jürgen Brinckmann, Dieter P. Reinhardt

Fibronectin (FN) exists in two forms—plasma FN (pFN) and cellular FN (cFN). Although the role of FN in embryonic blood vessel development is well established, its function and the contribution of individual isoforms in early postnatal vascular development are poorly understood. Here, we employed a tamoxifen-dependent cFN inducible knockout (cFN iKO) mouse model to study the consequences of postnatal cFN deletion in smooth muscle cells (SMCs), the major cell type in the vascular wall. Deletion of cFN influences collagen deposition but does not affect life span. Unexpectedly, pFN translocated to the aortic wall in the cFN iKO and in control mice, possibly rescuing the loss of cFN. Postnatal pFN deletion did not show a histological aortic phenotype. Double knockout (dKO) mice lacking both, cFN in SMCs and pFN, resulted in postnatal lethality. These data demonstrate a safeguard role of pFN in vascular stability and the dispensability of the individual FN isoforms in postnatal vascular development. Complete absence of FNs in the dKOs resulted in a disorganized tunica media of the aortic wall. Matrix analysis revealed common and differential roles of the FN isoforms in guiding the assembly/deposition of elastogenic extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the aortic wall. In addition, we determined with two cell culture models that that the two FN isoforms acted similarly in supporting matrix formation with a greater contribution from cFN. Together, these data show that pFN exerts a critical role in safeguarding vascular organization and health, and that the two FN isoforms function in an overlapping as well as distinct manner to maintain postnatal vascular matrix integrity.
Категории: Biology, Journals

Japanese computers may go haywire when the emperor abdicates next year

Genetics - пн, 2018-07-23 19:26
Japanese computers could go haywire next year when the emperor steps down. The calendar is based on the emperor’s reign and most tech is not ready for the change
Категории: Biology

There are more suicides in US and Mexico when the temperature rises

Genetics - пн, 2018-07-23 18:00
Hikes in average monthly temperatures are linked to higher suicide rates, which means climate change may lead to thousands of extra suicide deaths
Категории: Biology