Biology

Cancer immune therapy recognised with Nobel Prize for medicine

Genetics - пн, 2018-10-01 12:00
The Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine has been awarded to James Allison and Tasuku Honjo for discovering how cancer can be treated by targeting the immune system
Категории: Biology

Thought police: Spotting cyber criminals before they break the law

Genetics - пн, 2018-10-01 12:00
Hackers regularly purchase malware online for carrying out cyber-attacks, but a new system could automatically spot those considering doing so before they do it
Категории: Biology

Over 800 people have died after a massive tsunami hit Indonesia

Genetics - пн, 2018-10-01 11:22
A massive earthquake and tsunami has hit the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia. Over 800 people have died and another 50,000 people have been displaced
Категории: Biology

First Man: Ryan Gosling and Damien Chazelle on faking the moon landing

Genetics - вс, 2018-09-30 12:13
We talk to the star and director of First Man, the new film about the Apollo 11 mission, and ask what it was like getting into the head of the famously enigmatic Neil Armstrong
Категории: Biology

The Book of Humans review – a smart update on human exceptionalism

Genetics - вс, 2018-09-30 12:00
From tool use to sex, so much of what we think divides us from other animals is wrong. Culture is the new front line, says a new book – but expect surprises
Категории: Biology

Hooked review – Art for the people at the new London Science Gallery

Genetics - сб, 2018-09-29 12:00
From heroin to Playstation, we are all users argues Hooked, a captivating show to launch a gallery with ambitions to demolish the boundaries around science
Категории: Biology

US review of fetal research signals the return of the abortion wars

Genetics - пт, 2018-09-28 19:40
Backed by the “most pro-life president in modern history”, conservatives are gearing up for a new assault on reproductive rights, says Lara Williams
Категории: Biology

Hacking nature’s coolest inventions to create the perfect metal

Genetics - пт, 2018-09-28 18:00
From bamboo stalks to mantis shrimp clubs to teeth, nature marries strength and toughness with spectacular effect. Copying its secrets could usher in a new age of metals
Категории: Biology

China’s Tiangong-2 space station is set to re-enter Earth’s atmosphere

Genetics - пт, 2018-09-28 18:00
Last year Chinas’ space agency lost control of the Tiangong-1 space station during de-orbiting – they will be hoping history doesn’t repeat with Tiangong-2
Категории: Biology

Weird signals in Antarctica could be hints of a new realm of physics

Genetics - пт, 2018-09-28 16:48
A NASA radio balloon floating over Antarctica has spotted high-energy events that can’t be explained by our current understanding of particle physics
Категории: Biology

This robot crawls over your body and scans your skin with a microscope

Genetics - пт, 2018-09-28 15:19
SkinBot is a palm-sized robot that crawls over your skin inspecting it with a microscope and sensors that detect electrical signals
Категории: Biology

Mind-reading devices can now access your thoughts and dreams using AI

Genetics - пт, 2018-09-28 13:00
We can now decode dreams and recreate images of faces people have seen, and everyone from Facebook to Elon Musk wants a piece of this mind reading reality
Категории: Biology

Does more than 2 hours of screen time really harm children’s brains?

Genetics - пт, 2018-09-28 12:47
A study says that children do better academically if they limit screen time, but that doesn’t necessarily mean it is time to ban their phones
Категории: Biology

Why haven’t we heard from aliens? Because we’ve barely started looking

Genetics - пт, 2018-09-28 12:00
The search for alien life has found nothing so far. But the part of the galaxy we’ve searched is equivalent to just a bathtub of water in the world’s oceans
Категории: Biology

We thought the Incas couldn’t write. These knots change everything

Genetics - пт, 2018-09-28 10:00
A lost language encoded in intricate cords is finally revealing its secrets – and it could upend what we know about Incan history and culture
Категории: Biology

Every man in Spain was wiped out 4500 years ago by hostile invaders

Genetics - пт, 2018-09-28 08:00
When a new group of people arrived on the Iberian peninsula 4500 years ago, local males stopped passing on their genes – suggesting they were supplanted or killed
Категории: Biology

Haves and have nots must find a better way: The case for open scientific hardware

PLOS Biology (new articles) - чт, 2018-09-27 23:00

by André Maia Chagas

Many efforts are making science more open and accessible; they are mostly concentrated on issues that appear before and after experiments are performed: open access journals, open databases, and many other tools to increase reproducibility of science and access to information. However, these initiatives do not promote access to scientific equipment necessary for experiments. Mostly due to monetary constraints, equipment availability has always been uneven around the globe, affecting predominantly low-income countries and institutions. Here, a case is made for the use of free open source hardware in research and education, including countries and institutions where funds were never the biggest problem.
Категории: Biology, Journals

EpCAM ectodomain EpEX is a ligand of EGFR that counteracts EGF-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition through modulation of phospho-ERK1/2 in head and neck cancers

PLOS Biology (new articles) - чт, 2018-09-27 23:00

by Min Pan, Henrik Schinke, Elke Luxenburger, Gisela Kranz, Julius Shakhtour, Darko Libl, Yuanchi Huang, Aljaž Gaber, Miha Pavšič, Brigita Lenarčič, Julia Kitz, Mark Jakob, Sabina Schwenk-Zieger, Martin Canis, Julia Hess, Kristian Unger, Philipp Baumeister, Olivier Gires

Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) are characterized by outstanding molecular heterogeneity that results in severe therapy resistance and poor clinical outcome. Inter- and intratumoral heterogeneity in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was recently revealed as a major parameter of poor clinical outcome. Here, we addressed the expression and function of the therapeutic target epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and of the major determinant of epithelial differentiation epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) in clinical samples and in vitro models of HNSCCs. We describe improved survival of EGFRlow/EpCAMhigh HNSCC patients (n = 180) and provide a molecular basis for the observed disparities in clinical outcome. EGF/EGFR have concentration-dependent dual capacities as inducers of proliferation and EMT through differential activation of the central molecular switch phosphorylated extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK1/2) and EMT transcription factors (EMT-TFs) Snail, zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (Zeb1), and Slug. Furthermore, soluble ectodomain of EpCAM (EpEX) was identified as a ligand of EGFR that activates pERK1/2 and phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) and induces EGFR-dependent proliferation but represses EGF-mediated EMT, Snail, Zeb1, and Slug activation and cell migration. EMT repression by EpEX is realized through competitive modulation of pERK1/2 activation strength and inhibition of EMT-TFs, which is reflected in levels of pERK1/2 and its target Slug in clinical samples. Accordingly, high expression of pERK1/2 and/or Slug predicted poor outcome of HNSCCs. Hence, EpEX is a ligand of EGFR that induces proliferation but counteracts EMT mediated by the EGF/EGFR/pERK1/2 axis. Therefore, the emerging EGFR/EpCAM molecular cross talk represents a promising target to improve patient-tailored adjuvant treatment of HNSCCs.
Категории: Biology, Journals

The Sacred Ibis debate: The first test of evolution

PLOS Biology (new articles) - чт, 2018-09-27 23:00

by Caitlin Curtis, Craig D. Millar, David M. Lambert

In 1798, Napoleon Bonaparte’s army invaded Egypt, returning with many treasures including large numbers of Sacred Ibis mummies. The ancient Egyptians revered the ibis and mummified literally millions of them. The French naturalist Georges Cuvier used these mummies to challenge an emerging idea of the time, namely Jean-Baptiste Lamarck’s theory of evolution. Cuvier detected no measurable differences between mummified Sacred Ibis and contemporary specimens of the same species. Consequently, he argued that this was evidence for the “fixity of species.” The “Sacred Ibis debate” predates the so-called “Great Debate” between Cuvier and Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire and the publication of Darwin’s On the Origin of Species five decades later. Cuvier’s views and his study had a profound influence on the scientific and public perception of evolution, setting back the acceptance of evolutionary theory in Europe for decades.
Категории: Biology, Journals

Multiple origins and modularity in the spatiotemporal emergence of cerebellar astrocyte heterogeneity

PLOS Biology (new articles) - чт, 2018-09-27 23:00

by Valentina Cerrato, Elena Parmigiani, María Figueres-Oñate, Marion Betizeau, Jessica Aprato, Ishira Nanavaty, Paola Berchialla, Federico Luzzati, Claudio de’Sperati, Laura López-Mascaraque, Annalisa Buffo

The morphological, molecular, and functional heterogeneity of astrocytes is under intense scrutiny, but how this diversity is ontogenetically achieved remains largely unknown. Here, by quantitative in vivo clonal analyses and proliferation studies, we demonstrate that the major cerebellar astrocyte types emerge according to an unprecedented and remarkably orderly developmental program comprising (i) a time-dependent decline in both clone size and progenitor multipotency, associated with clone allocation first to the hemispheres and then to the vermis(ii) distinctive clonal relationships among astrocyte types, revealing diverse lineage potentials of embryonic and postnatal progenitors; and (iii) stereotyped clone architectures and recurrent modularities that correlate to layer-specific dynamics of postnatal proliferation/differentiation. In silico simulations indicate that the sole presence of a unique multipotent progenitor at the source of the whole astrogliogenic program is unlikely and rather suggest the involvement of additional committed components.
Категории: Biology, Journals