Biology

Winning at work: Why chilling out is the route to job success

Genetics - вт, 2019-01-08 17:00
Forget the cult of being busy, research shows that if you take things slower at work you’ll be happier and healthier – and more likely to get promotions, too
Категории: Biology

Winning at work: How to avoid getting sick in the office

Genetics - вт, 2019-01-08 17:00
Our workplaces are making us sick, but there are clever ways to dodge the germiest corners and keep your health intact
Категории: Biology

Winning at work: How to manage your boss… and get that pay rise

Genetics - вт, 2019-01-08 17:00
We’re not as good as we think at working together with strangers. But we can harness psychology to make our work relationships work for everyone
Категории: Biology

Flowers hear bees and make sweeter nectar when they’re buzzing nearby

Genetics - вт, 2019-01-08 16:44
Evening primrose flowers appear to be sensitive to the sounds of bees, increasing the sugar level of their nectar by 20 per cent when exposed to their buzzing
Категории: Biology

IBM unveils its first commercial quantum computer

Genetics - вт, 2019-01-08 14:55
IBM's sleek-looking Q System One is its first commercial quantum computer. It will be available for clients to access over the internet
Категории: Biology

A transient helix in the disordered region of dynein light intermediate chain links the motor to structurally diverse adaptors for cargo transport

PLOS Biology (new articles) - вт, 2019-01-08 00:00

by Ricardo Celestino, Morkos A. Henen, José B. Gama, Cátia Carvalho, Maxwell McCabe, Daniel J. Barbosa, Alexandra Born, Parker J. Nichols, Ana X. Carvalho, Reto Gassmann, Beat Vögeli

All animal cells use the motor cytoplasmic dynein 1 (dynein) to transport diverse cargo toward microtubule minus ends and to organize and position microtubule arrays such as the mitotic spindle. Cargo-specific adaptors engage with dynein to recruit and activate the motor, but the molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here, we use structural and dynamic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis to demonstrate that the C-terminal region of human dynein light intermediate chain 1 (LIC1) is intrinsically disordered and contains two short conserved segments with helical propensity. NMR titration experiments reveal that the first helical segment (helix 1) constitutes the main interaction site for the adaptors Spindly (SPDL1), bicaudal D homolog 2 (BICD2), and Hook homolog 3 (HOOK3). In vitro binding assays show that helix 1, but not helix 2, is essential in both LIC1 and LIC2 for binding to SPDL1, BICD2, HOOK3, RAB-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP), RAB11 family-interacting protein 3 (RAB11FIP3), ninein (NIN), and trafficking kinesin-binding protein 1 (TRAK1). Helix 1 is sufficient to bind RILP, whereas other adaptors require additional segments preceding helix 1 for efficient binding. Point mutations in the C-terminal helix 1 of Caenorhabditis elegans LIC, introduced by genome editing, severely affect development, locomotion, and life span of the animal and disrupt the distribution and transport kinetics of membrane cargo in axons of mechanosensory neurons, identical to what is observed when the entire LIC C-terminal region is deleted. Deletion of the C-terminal helix 2 delays dynein-dependent spindle positioning in the one-cell embryo but overall does not significantly perturb dynein function. We conclude that helix 1 in the intrinsically disordered region of LIC provides a conserved link between dynein and structurally diverse cargo adaptor families that is critical for dynein function in vivo.
Категории: Biology, Journals

Core set of genes explain why some animals stick to one mate at a time

Genetics - пн, 2019-01-07 22:00
Across a wide range of species, from mice to fish, a common set of genetic changes appear to be linked to monogamous behaviour
Категории: Biology

A hormone released during exercise might protect against Alzheimer's

Genetics - пн, 2019-01-07 20:09
Exercise improves mental performance and this may be due to a hormone called Irisin. The hormone may help protect against Alzheimer's disease too
Категории: Biology

Ditching Facebook could reduce stress but also make you less happy

Genetics - пн, 2019-01-07 19:19
People who took a five-day break from Facebook had a decreased level in the stress hormone cortisol, but also reported a lower life satisfaction
Категории: Biology

Top geneticist calls for global rules for ethical human genome editing

Genetics - пн, 2019-01-07 18:51
Following the shock announcement of the world's first genome-edited babies, geneticist Robin Lovell-Badge says the world must agree a set of safety protocols
Категории: Biology

AI can identify rare genetic disorders by the shape of someone’s face

Genetics - пн, 2019-01-07 18:00
Doctors use facial features to diagnose common genetic disorders, but that’s tricky to do with some rare ones – artificial intelligence can help
Категории: Biology

We could drill water wells in Martian ice to survive on the Red Planet

Genetics - пн, 2019-01-07 13:26
Future Martian explorers will need water if they are going to survive. They may be able to melt it out of underground ice sheets using a type of well already used in Antarctica
Категории: Biology

NHS 10-year-plan aims to expand digital healthcare and genetic testing

Genetics - пн, 2019-01-07 13:06
A plan for the future of the National Health Service in England aims to improve mental health services and provide genome sequencing for all children with cancer
Категории: Biology

Books of 2019: Our pick of the best forthcoming reads

Genetics - сб, 2019-01-05 12:00
From what to do about Einstein to tricks for survival to doing away with sexist neurotrash, it is looking like a good year for books
Категории: Biology

Burden of Genius review: The story of the first liver transplants

Genetics - сб, 2019-01-05 02:00
On the last of our 12 Days of Culture, a film about pioneering liver transplant surgeon Thomas Starzl is one of sacrificing family life for medical advance
Категории: Biology

Triplet-pore structure of a highly divergent TOM complex of hydrogenosomes in <i>Trichomonas vaginalis</i>

PLOS Biology (new articles) - сб, 2019-01-05 00:00

by Abhijith Makki, Petr Rada, Vojtěch Žárský, Sami Kereïche, Lubomír Kováčik, Marian Novotný, Tobias Jores, Doron Rapaport, Jan Tachezy

Mitochondria originated from proteobacterial endosymbionts, and their transition to organelles was tightly linked to establishment of the protein import pathways. The initial import of most proteins is mediated by the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM). Although TOM is common to all forms of mitochondria, an unexpected diversity of subunits between eukaryotic lineages has been predicted. However, experimental knowledge is limited to a few organisms, and so far, it remains unsettled whether the triplet-pore or the twin-pore structure is the generic form of TOM complex. Here, we analysed the TOM complex in hydrogenosomes, a metabolically specialised anaerobic form of mitochondria found in the excavate Trichomonas vaginalis. We demonstrate that the highly divergent β-barrel T. vaginalis TOM (TvTom)40-2 forms a translocation channel to conduct hydrogenosomal protein import. TvTom40-2 is present in high molecular weight complexes, and their analysis revealed the presence of four tail-anchored (TA) proteins. Two of them, Tom36 and Tom46, with heat shock protein (Hsp)20 and tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains, can bind hydrogenosomal preproteins and most likely function as receptors. A third subunit, Tom22-like protein, has a short cis domain and a conserved Tom22 transmembrane segment but lacks a trans domain. The fourth protein, hydrogenosomal outer membrane protein 19 (Homp19) has no known homology. Furthermore, our data indicate that TvTOM is associated with sorting and assembly machinery (Sam)50 that is involved in β-barrel assembly. Visualisation of TvTOM by electron microscopy revealed that it forms three pores and has an unconventional skull-like shape. Although TvTOM seems to lack Tom7, our phylogenetic profiling predicted Tom7 in free-living excavates. Collectively, our results suggest that the triplet-pore TOM complex, composed of three conserved subunits, was present in the last common eukaryotic ancestor (LECA), while receptors responsible for substrate binding evolved independently in different eukaryotic lineages.
Категории: Biology, Journals

Differential and convergent utilization of autophagy components by positive-strand RNA viruses

PLOS Biology (new articles) - сб, 2019-01-05 00:00

by Emma Abernathy, Roberto Mateo, Karim Majzoub, Nick van Buuren, Sara W. Bird, Jan E. Carette, Karla Kirkegaard

Many viruses interface with the autophagy pathway, a highly conserved process for recycling cellular components. For three viral infections in which autophagy constituents are proviral (poliovirus, dengue, and Zika), we developed a panel of knockouts (KOs) of autophagy-related genes to test which components of the canonical pathway are utilized. We discovered that each virus uses a distinct set of initiation components; however, all three viruses utilize autophagy-related gene 9 (ATG9), a lipid scavenging protein, and LC3 (light-chain 3), which is involved in membrane curvature. These results show that viruses use noncanonical routes for membrane sculpting and LC3 recruitment. By measuring viral RNA abundance, we also found that poliovirus utilizes these autophagy components for intracellular growth, while dengue and Zika virus only use autophagy components for post-RNA replication processes. Comparing how RNA viruses manipulate the autophagy pathway reveals new noncanonical autophagy routes, explains the exacerbation of disease by starvation, and uncovers common targets for antiviral drugs.
Категории: Biology, Journals

Burden of Genius review: The story of the first liver transplants

Genetics - пт, 2019-01-04 18:11
On the last of our 12 Days of Culture, a film about pioneering liver transplant surgeon Thomas Starzl is one of sacrificing family life for medical advance
Категории: Biology

Self-cleaning spacesuits could help astronauts cope with Martian dust

Genetics - пт, 2019-01-04 17:48
Mars and the Moon are covered in abrasive dust that will stick to and shred spacesuits – but not if those spacesuits are made using non-stick carbon nanotube-based materials
Категории: Biology

Hackers have leaked personal details of hundreds of German politicians

Genetics - пт, 2019-01-04 17:11
A significant data breach has exposed the personal information of chancellor Angela Merkel along with hundreds of other German politicians
Категории: Biology