Biology

Google+ to shut down after 500,000 people’s personal details exposed

Genetics - вт, 2018-10-09 11:45
The social network Google+ is shutting down for regular users, after it discovered a flaw in March that exposed personal information of up to 500,000 people
Категории: Biology

What is ‘problem internet use’ and is it really a problem?

Genetics - вт, 2018-10-09 01:01
Researchers are calling for recognition of mental health problems caused by excessive gaming, gambling and social media, but lumping these together may not be right
Категории: Biology

<i>Candida albicans</i> biofilm–induced vesicles confer drug resistance through matrix biogenesis

PLOS Biology (new articles) - пн, 2018-10-08 23:00

by Robert Zarnowski, Hiram Sanchez, Antonio S. Covelli, Eddie Dominguez, Anna Jaromin, Jörg Berhardt, Christian Heiss, Parastoo Azadi, Aaron Mitchell, David R. Andes

Cells from all kingdoms of life produce extracellular vesicles (EVs). Their cargo is protected from the environment by the surrounding lipid bilayer. EVs from many organisms have been shown to function in cell–cell communication, relaying signals that impact metazoan development, microbial quorum sensing, and pathogenic host–microbe interactions. Here, we have investigated the production and functional activities of EVs in a surface-associated microbial community or biofilm of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Crowded communities like biofilms are a context in which EVs are likely to function. Biofilms are noteworthy because they are encased in an extracellular polymeric matrix and because biofilm cells exhibit extreme tolerance to antimicrobial compounds. We found that biofilm EVs are distinct from those produced by free-living planktonic cells and display strong parallels in composition to biofilm matrix material. The functions of biofilm EVs were delineated with a panel of mutants defective in orthologs of endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) subunits, which are required for normal EV production in diverse eukaryotes. Most ESCRT-defective mutations caused reduced biofilm EV production, reduced matrix polysaccharide levels, and greatly increased sensitivity to the antifungal drug fluconazole. Matrix accumulation and drug hypersensitivity of ESCRT mutants were reversed by addition of wild-type (WT) biofilm EVs. Vesicle complementation showed that biofilm EV function derives from specific cargo proteins. Our studies indicate that C. albicans biofilm EVs have a pivotal role in matrix production and biofilm drug resistance. Biofilm matrix synthesis is a community enterprise; prior studies of mixed cell biofilms have demonstrated extracellular complementation. Therefore, EVs function not only in cell–cell communication but also in the sharing of microbial community resources.
Категории: Biology, Journals

Noncoding RNA Ginir functions as an oncogene by associating with centrosomal proteins

PLOS Biology (new articles) - пн, 2018-10-08 23:00

by Suchismita Panda, Meenakshi Setia, Navjot Kaur, Varsha Shepal, Vivek Arora, Divya Kumari Singh, Abir Mondal, Abhishek Teli, Madhura Tathode, Rajendra Gajula, L. C. Padhy, Anjali Shiras

Long noncoding RNAs constitute a major fraction of the eukaryotic transcriptome, and together with proteins, they intricately fine-tune various growth regulatory signals to control cellular homeostasis. Here, we describe the functional characterisation of a novel pair of long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) comprised of complementary, fully overlapping sense and antisense transcripts Genomic Instability Inducing RNA (Ginir) and antisense RNA of Ginir (Giniras), respectively, from mouse cells. This transcript pair is expressed in a spatiotemporal manner during embryonic development. The individual levels of the sense and antisense transcripts are finely balanced during embryonic growth and in adult tissues. Functional studies of the individual transcripts performed using overexpression and knock-down strategies in mouse cells has led to the discovery that Ginir RNA is a regulator of cellular proliferation and can act as an oncogene having a preeminent role in malignant transformation. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that the oncogenic function of Ginir is mediated by its interaction with centrosomal protein 112 (Cep112). Additionally, we establish here a specific interaction between Cep112 with breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (Brca1), another centrosome-associated protein. Next, we prove that the mutual interaction between Cep112 with Brca1 is significant for mitotic regulation and maintenance of genomic stability. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Cep112 protein interaction with Brca1 protein is impaired when an elevated level of Ginir RNA is present in the cells, resulting in severe deregulation and abnormality in mitosis, leading to malignant transformation. Inhibiting the Ginir RNA function in transformed cells attenuates transformation and restores genomic stability. Together, these findings unravel, to our knowledge, a hitherto-unknown mechanism of oncogenesis mediated by a long noncoding RNA and establishes a unique role of Cep112–Brca1 interaction being modulated by Ginir RNA in maintaining mitotic fidelity.
Категории: Biology, Journals

How to make jet fuel from used cooking oil

Genetics - пн, 2018-10-08 21:22
Air travel is a growing source of greenhouse gas emissions. But a project to turn used cooking oil into jet fuel could help change that, says Tom Parsons
Категории: Biology

Jupiter’s moon Europa may have a belt of 15-metre-tall ice spikes

Genetics - пн, 2018-10-08 17:00
Landing on Jupiter’s moon Europa will be even harder than we thought due to a forbidding belt of huge ice spikes that could trap or incapacitate a spacecraft
Категории: Biology

Naysayers rise to the top because we naturally treat them as leaders

Genetics - пн, 2018-10-08 16:39
Openly negative and critical people are often elected leaders, perhaps because we perceive their disregard for social niceties as a sign of power and independence
Категории: Biology

What you need to know about the big UN climate report out this week

Genetics - пн, 2018-10-08 15:30
A special report on limiting global warming to 1.5°C has been released. Get caught up on why it matters
Категории: Biology

Why the quest for ethical AI is doomed to failure

Genetics - пн, 2018-10-08 14:00
You wouldn't buy a self-driving car that would kill you to save pedestrians – and that's why we must rethink how we make AI behave, says researcher Iyad Rahwan
Категории: Biology

Swallowing a vibrating capsule could help relieve constipation

Genetics - пн, 2018-10-08 14:00
Capsules that are programmed to vibrate when they reach the large intestine have been shown to stimulate bowel contractions and relieve chronic constipation
Категории: Biology

Front-runner in Brazil’s election wants to pull out of climate treaty

Genetics - пн, 2018-10-08 12:52
The far-right winner of the first round of Brazil's presidential election wants to withdraw from the Paris climate agreement and cut down the Amazon rainforest
Категории: Biology

Hubble Space Telescope taken out of action by faulty gyroscopes

Genetics - пн, 2018-10-08 11:41
NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has been temporarily shut down as technical faults have hampered its ability to point in the right direction
Категории: Biology

Economics Nobel prize given for putting a price tag on climate change

Genetics - пн, 2018-10-08 08:15
The 2018 Sveriges Riksbank prize in economic sciences has gone to Paul Romer and William Nordhaus for integrating climate change and technology into macroeconomics
Категории: Biology

David Attenborough’s Life on Earth review – a revamped classic

Genetics - сб, 2018-10-06 12:00
A fresh version of David Attenborough's classic book may be light on climate change, but it should inspire a new generation to cherish life on earth
Категории: Biology

Crafting your scientist brand

PLOS Biology (new articles) - пт, 2018-10-05 23:00

by Peter J. Hotez

That a scientist might shape and cultivate a personal brand is a relatively new concept but one that is finding increasing acceptance in this new age of rapid communications and social media. A key driver is the abrupt rise in well-funded and organized antiscience movements, especially in North America and Europe, such that society now benefits from scientists with strong personal brands and public personas who are willing to engage general audiences. In this sense, branding itself can advance science, the sharing of information, and the promotion of science as a public good. Still another dimension to branding is that it affords an opportunity to mentor younger scientists and helps you to become an important role model for the next generation. There is also a practical side, as today, fewer scientists spend their entire career at a single institution, so owning a strong brand can sometimes create easier paths for transitions and mobility. However, brand cultivation ideally begins in collaboration with your institutional office of communications and is done in a way that is seen as a win for both you and your university or research institution. Described here are some steps to consider when embarking on brand cultivation and how to avoid some of the potential pitfalls.
Категории: Biology, Journals

We’ve spotted the shock wave from an invisible explosion in space

Genetics - пт, 2018-10-05 20:12
For the first time, astronomers have spotted the shock wave from a powerful space explosion called a gamma ray burst without being able to see the burst itself
Категории: Biology

Cassini revealed three big surprises before diving into Saturn

Genetics - пт, 2018-10-05 17:00
Before the Cassini spacecraft melted away in Saturn’s atmosphere, it hurtled between the planet and its rings 22 times - and made some strange discoveries
Категории: Biology

Hundreds of physicists condemn sexist talk at CERN on women in physics

Genetics - пт, 2018-10-05 16:29
Following a talk by Alessandro Strumia at particle physics lab CERN that sparked outrage about sexism, hundreds of researchers have rallied together to push back against his claims
Категории: Biology

How should we control the power to genetically eliminate a species?

Genetics - пт, 2018-10-05 16:00
The power to re-engineer or eliminate wild species using a “gene drive” needs to be brought under international governance, say Simon Terry and Stephanie Howard
Категории: Biology

IVF success boosted by drug that helps embryos implant in the womb

Genetics - пт, 2018-10-05 15:07
Women given a drug that increases blood flow to the womb have a significantly higher chance of giving birth through IVF
Категории: Biology