Feed aggregator

Weather forecasts from alien worlds are in – and it’s wild out there

Genetics - Fri, 2018-11-09 14:00
We have seen violent winds, clouds of glass and ruby hailstones. In fact, weather on exoplanets can be so extreme that it can make or break their habitability
Categories: Biology

Weather forecasts from alien worlds are in – and it’s wild out there

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Fri, 2018-11-09 14:00
We have seen violent winds, clouds of glass and ruby hailstones. In fact, weather on exoplanets can be so extreme that it can make or break their habitability
Categories: Science and society

Women in physics: Why there’s a problem and how we can solve it

Genetics - Fri, 2018-11-09 13:05
Women are still wildly under-represented in physics – but it doesn't have to be like that. Our special report looks at the steps we can take to improve things
Categories: Biology

Women in physics: Why there’s a problem and how we can solve it

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Fri, 2018-11-09 13:05
Women are still wildly under-represented in physics – but it doesn't have to be like that. Our special report looks at the steps we can take to improve things
Categories: Science and society

Two new rogue planets that do not orbit stars have been discovered

Genetics - Fri, 2018-11-09 11:00
Astronmers have found two new planets that don't have stars. They are incredibly difficult to spot, but there may be more of them in the Milky Way than stars
Categories: Biology

Two new rogue planets that do not orbit stars have been discovered

HIV and AIDS - Fri, 2018-11-09 11:00
Astronmers have found two new planets that don't have stars. They are incredibly difficult to spot, but there may be more of them in the Milky Way than stars

Two new rogue planets that do not orbit stars have been discovered

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Fri, 2018-11-09 11:00
Astronmers have found two new planets that don't have stars. They are incredibly difficult to spot, but there may be more of them in the Milky Way than stars
Categories: Science and society

TRIM59 promotes breast cancer motility by suppressing p62-selective autophagic degradation of PDCD10

PLOS Biology (new articles) - Fri, 2018-11-09 00:00

by Peng Tan, Youqiong Ye, Lian He, Jiansheng Xie, Ji Jing, Guolin Ma, Hongming Pan, Leng Han, Weidong Han, Yubin Zhou

Cancer cells adopt various modes of migration during metastasis. How the ubiquitination machinery contributes to cancer cell motility remains underexplored. Here, we report that tripartite motif (TRIM) 59 is frequently up-regulated in metastatic breast cancer, which is correlated with advanced clinical stages and reduced survival among breast cancer patients. TRIM59 knockdown (KD) promoted apoptosis and inhibited tumor growth, while TRIM59 overexpression led to the opposite effects. Importantly, we uncovered TRIM59 as a key regulator of cell contractility and adhesion to control the plasticity of metastatic tumor cells. At the molecular level, we identified programmed cell death protein 10 (PDCD10) as a target of TRIM59. TRIM59 stabilized PDCD10 by suppressing RING finger and transmembrane domain-containing protein 1 (RNFT1)-induced lysine 63 (K63) ubiquitination and subsequent phosphotyrosine-independent ligand for the Lck SH2 domain of 62 KDa (p62)-selective autophagic degradation. TRIM59 promoted PDCD10-mediated suppression of Ras homolog family member A (RhoA)-Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) 1 signaling to control the transition between amoeboid and mesenchymal invasiveness. PDCD10 overexpression or administration of a ROCK inhibitor reversed TRIM59 loss-induced contractile phenotypes, thereby accelerating cell migration, invasion, and tumor formation. These findings establish the rationale for targeting deregulated TRIM59/PDCD10 to treat breast cancer.
Categories: Biology, Journals

Harnessing olfactory bulb oscillations to perform fully brain-based sleep-scoring and real-time monitoring of anaesthesia depth

PLOS Biology (new articles) - Fri, 2018-11-09 00:00

by Sophie Bagur, Marie Masako Lacroix, Gaëtan de Lavilléon, Julie M. Lefort, Hélène Geoffroy, Karim Benchenane

Real-time tracking of vigilance states related to both sleep or anaesthesia has been a goal for over a century. However, sleep scoring cannot currently be performed with brain signals alone, despite the deep neuromodulatory transformations that accompany sleep state changes. Therefore, at heart, the operational distinction between sleep and wake is that of immobility and movement, despite numerous situations in which this one-to-one mapping fails. Here we demonstrate, using local field potential (LFP) recordings in freely moving mice, that gamma (50–70 Hz) power in the olfactory bulb (OB) allows for clear classification of sleep and wake, thus providing a brain-based criterion to distinguish these two vigilance states without relying on motor activity. Coupled with hippocampal theta activity, it allows the elaboration of a sleep scoring algorithm that relies on brain activity alone. This method reaches over 90% homology with classical methods based on muscular activity (electromyography [EMG]) and video tracking. Moreover, contrary to EMG, OB gamma power allows correct discrimination between sleep and immobility in ambiguous situations such as fear-related freezing. We use the instantaneous power of hippocampal theta oscillation and OB gamma oscillation to construct a 2D phase space that is highly robust throughout time, across individual mice and mouse strains, and under classical drug treatment. Dynamic analysis of trajectories within this space yields a novel characterisation of sleep/wake transitions: whereas waking up is a fast and direct transition that can be modelled by a ballistic trajectory, falling asleep is best described as a stochastic and gradual state change. Finally, we demonstrate that OB oscillations also allow us to track other vigilance states. Non-REM (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep can be distinguished with high accuracy based on beta (10–15 Hz) power. More importantly, we show that depth of anaesthesia can be tracked in real time using OB gamma power. Indeed, the gamma power predicts and anticipates the motor response to stimulation both in the steady state under constant anaesthetic and dynamically during the recovery period. Altogether, this methodology opens the avenue for multi-timescale characterisation of brain states and provides an unprecedented window onto levels of vigilance.
Categories: Biology, Journals

The cause of half of all developmental disorders is a genetic mystery

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Thu, 2018-11-08 21:00
More than 1 in 200 children have serious developmental disorders but we’ve only been able to find the genetic cause of half of them
Categories: Science and society

Indigenous peoples in the Amazon and Australia share some ancestry

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Thu, 2018-11-08 21:00
Fifteen ancient human genomes reveal how people first spread through the Americas – and strengthen a mysterious link between people in the Amazon and in Australasia
Categories: Science and society

The cause of half of all developmental disorders is a genetic mystery

Genetics - Thu, 2018-11-08 21:00
More than 1 in 200 children have serious developmental disorders but we’ve only been able to find the genetic cause of half of them
Categories: Biology

Indigenous peoples in the Amazon and Australia share some ancestry

Genetics - Thu, 2018-11-08 21:00
Fifteen ancient human genomes reveal how people first spread through the Americas – and strengthen a mysterious link between people in the Amazon and in Australasia
Categories: Biology

The cause of half of all developmental disorders is a genetic mystery

HIV and AIDS - Thu, 2018-11-08 21:00
More than 1 in 200 children have serious developmental disorders but we’ve only been able to find the genetic cause of half of them

Indigenous peoples in the Amazon and Australia share some ancestry

HIV and AIDS - Thu, 2018-11-08 21:00
Fifteen ancient human genomes reveal how people first spread through the Americas – and strengthen a mysterious link between people in the Amazon and in Australasia

NASA is giving advice to Yuri Milner’s private mission to Enceladus

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Thu, 2018-11-08 14:38
Saturn's moon Enceladus might host life, and Russian-Israeli billionaire Yuri Milner is planning the first private mission to deep space to find out more
Categories: Science and society

NASA is giving advice to Yuri Milner’s private mission to Enceladus

Genetics - Thu, 2018-11-08 14:38
Saturn's moon Enceladus might host life, and Russian-Israeli billionaire Yuri Milner is planning the first private mission to deep space to find out more
Categories: Biology

NASA is giving advice to Yuri Milner’s private mission to Enceladus

HIV and AIDS - Thu, 2018-11-08 14:38
Saturn's moon Enceladus might host life, and Russian-Israeli billionaire Yuri Milner is planning the first private mission to deep space to find out more

Double the risk of death! The problem with headline health statistics

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Thu, 2018-11-08 14:22
The way in which a statistic is presented can entirely change how alarming it sounds. And too often, both newspapers and scientific journals choose the most alarming, but least informative, way
Categories: Science and society

Double the risk of death! The problem with headline health statistics

Genetics - Thu, 2018-11-08 14:22
The way in which a statistic is presented can entirely change how alarming it sounds. And too often, both newspapers and scientific journals choose the most alarming, but least informative, way
Categories: Biology