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Long lost cities in the Amazon were once home to millions of people

HIV and AIDS - Wed, 2019-01-16 14:00
We used to think the Amazon rainforest was virtually untouched, but it now seems to have been filled with sprawling settlements whose inhabitants shaped the land

China's moon garden is dead as the craft is plunged into lunar night

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Wed, 2019-01-16 13:47
Cotton seeds growing on China's Chang'e 4 probe on the far side of the moon have been plunged into darkness, marking the end of the first lunar biosphere experiment
Categories: Science and society

China's moon garden is dead as the craft is plunged into lunar night

Genetics - Wed, 2019-01-16 13:47
Cotton seeds growing on China's Chang'e 4 probe on the far side of the moon have been plunged into darkness, marking the end of the first lunar biosphere experiment
Categories: Biology

China's moon garden is dead as the craft is plunged into lunar night

HIV and AIDS - Wed, 2019-01-16 13:47
Cotton seeds growing on China's Chang'e 4 probe on the far side of the moon have been plunged into darkness, marking the end of the first lunar biosphere experiment

Long penises help hermit crabs avoid being robbed during sex

Genetics - Wed, 2019-01-16 02:01
Some male hermit crabs have unusually long penises. This could be so that they can protect their homes whilst having sex
Categories: Biology

Long penises help hermit crabs avoid being robbed during sex

HIV and AIDS - Wed, 2019-01-16 02:01
Some male hermit crabs have unusually long penises. This could be so that they can protect their homes whilst having sex

Long penises help hermit crabs avoid being robbed during sex

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Wed, 2019-01-16 02:01
Some male hermit crabs have unusually long penises. This could be so that they can protect their homes whilst having sex
Categories: Science and society

How hagfish can make enough slime to clog a shark's jaws in seconds

Genetics - Wed, 2019-01-16 02:01
Hagfish use slime to clog up sharks’ jaws in milliseconds, and it’s the water drag generated when the shark inhales that helps the slime form so quickly
Categories: Biology

How hagfish can make enough slime to clog a shark's jaws in seconds

HIV and AIDS - Wed, 2019-01-16 02:01
Hagfish use slime to clog up sharks’ jaws in milliseconds, and it’s the water drag generated when the shark inhales that helps the slime form so quickly

How hagfish can make enough slime to clog a shark's jaws in seconds

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Wed, 2019-01-16 02:01
Hagfish use slime to clog up sharks’ jaws in milliseconds, and it’s the water drag generated when the shark inhales that helps the slime form so quickly
Categories: Science and society

Large carnivores under assault in Alaska

PLOS Biology (new articles) - Wed, 2019-01-16 00:00

by William J. Ripple, Sterling D. Miller, John W. Schoen, Sanford P. Rabinowitch

In Alaska, gray wolves (Canis lupis), brown bears (Ursus arctos), and black bears (U. americanus) are managed in most of the state in ways intended to significantly reduce their abundance in the expectation of increasing hunter harvests of ungulates. To our knowledge, Alaska is unique in the world because this management priority is both widespread and mandated by state law. Large carnivore management in Alaska is a reversion to outdated management concepts and occurs without effective monitoring programs designed to scientifically evaluate impacts on predator populations. Large carnivore management in Alaska should be based on rigorous science including the status and trends of carnivore populations.
Categories: Biology, Journals

Adding function to the genome of African <i>Salmonella</i> Typhimurium ST313 strain D23580

PLOS Biology (new articles) - Wed, 2019-01-16 00:00

by Rocío Canals, Disa L. Hammarlöf, Carsten Kröger, Siân V. Owen, Wai Yee Fong, Lizeth Lacharme-Lora, Xiaojun Zhu, Nicolas Wenner, Sarah E. Carden, Jared Honeycutt, Denise M. Monack, Robert A. Kingsley, Philip Brownridge, Roy R. Chaudhuri, Will P. M. Rowe, Alexander V. Predeus, Karsten Hokamp, Melita A. Gordon, Jay C. D. Hinton

Salmonella Typhimurium sequence type (ST) 313 causes invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in sub-Saharan Africa, targeting susceptible HIV+, malarial, or malnourished individuals. An in-depth genomic comparison between the ST313 isolate D23580 and the well-characterized ST19 isolate 4/74 that causes gastroenteritis across the globe revealed extensive synteny. To understand how the 856 nucleotide variations generated phenotypic differences, we devised a large-scale experimental approach that involved the global gene expression analysis of strains D23580 and 4/74 grown in 16 infection-relevant growth conditions. Comparison of transcriptional patterns identified virulence and metabolic genes that were differentially expressed between D23580 versus 4/74, many of which were validated by proteomics. We also uncovered the S. Typhimurium D23580 and 4/74 genes that showed expression differences during infection of murine macrophages. Our comparative transcriptomic data are presented in a new enhanced version of the Salmonella expression compendium, SalComD23580: http://bioinf.gen.tcd.ie/cgi-bin/salcom_v2.pl. We discovered that the ablation of melibiose utilization was caused by three independent SNP mutations in D23580 that are shared across ST313 lineage 2, suggesting that the ability to catabolize this carbon source has been negatively selected during ST313 evolution. The data revealed a novel, to our knowledge, plasmid maintenance system involving a plasmid-encoded CysS cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase, highlighting the power of large-scale comparative multicondition analyses to pinpoint key phenotypic differences between bacterial pathovariants.
Categories: Biology, Journals

We all love Marie Kondo. So why is tidying up so hard?

Genetics - Tue, 2019-01-15 13:37
The Japanese neatness consultant has inspired millions to declutter. So why is getting your home Instagrammably neat so difficult, asks David H. Freedman
Categories: Biology

We all love Marie Kondo. So why is tidying up so hard?

HIV and AIDS - Tue, 2019-01-15 13:37
The Japanese neatness consultant has inspired millions to declutter. So why is getting your home Instagrammably neat so difficult, asks David H. Freedman

We all love Marie Kondo. So why is tidying up so hard?

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Tue, 2019-01-15 13:37
The Japanese neatness consultant has inspired millions to declutter. So why is getting your home Instagrammably neat so difficult, asks David H. Freedman
Categories: Science and society

Call for more transparency over ‘add-on’ fertility treatments

Genetics - Tue, 2019-01-15 13:20
The UK’s fertility regulator has said that clinics offering fertility treatments must be more transparent about the effectiveness and costs of “optional extras”
Categories: Biology

Call for more transparency over ‘add-on’ fertility treatments

HIV and AIDS - Tue, 2019-01-15 13:20
The UK’s fertility regulator has said that clinics offering fertility treatments must be more transparent about the effectiveness and costs of “optional extras”

Call for more transparency over ‘add-on’ fertility treatments

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Tue, 2019-01-15 13:20
The UK’s fertility regulator has said that clinics offering fertility treatments must be more transparent about the effectiveness and costs of “optional extras”
Categories: Science and society

Astronauts travelling to the moon and Mars risk dying from superbugs

Genetics - Tue, 2019-01-15 13:17
Just trace amounts of antibiotics in a spacecraft could be enough to let bacteria evolve deadly resistance on long space journeys
Categories: Biology

Astronauts travelling to the moon and Mars risk dying from superbugs

HIV and AIDS - Tue, 2019-01-15 13:17
Just trace amounts of antibiotics in a spacecraft could be enough to let bacteria evolve deadly resistance on long space journeys