Feed aggregator

A virus we thought was harmless to humans may worsen cystic fibrosis

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Wed, 2019-04-17 21:00
Bacteriophage viruses target microbes and not human cells – but paradoxically, they make it harder to treat bacterial infections in people with cystic fibrosis
Categories: Science and society

A virus we thought was harmless to humans may worsen cystic fibrosis

Genetics - Wed, 2019-04-17 21:00
Bacteriophage viruses target microbes and not human cells – but paradoxically, they make it harder to treat bacterial infections in people with cystic fibrosis
Categories: Biology

A virus we thought was harmless to humans may worsen cystic fibrosis

HIV and AIDS - Wed, 2019-04-17 21:00
Bacteriophage viruses target microbes and not human cells – but paradoxically, they make it harder to treat bacterial infections in people with cystic fibrosis

Viewing media coverage of traumatic events may fuel long-term distress

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Wed, 2019-04-17 21:00
When a violent world event occurs, you may want to find out as much about it as possible. But exposure to media coverage may cause long-term anxiety and stress
Categories: Science and society

Viewing media coverage of traumatic events may fuel long-term distress

Genetics - Wed, 2019-04-17 21:00
When a violent world event occurs, you may want to find out as much about it as possible. But exposure to media coverage may cause long-term anxiety and stress
Categories: Biology

Viewing media coverage of traumatic events may fuel long-term distress

HIV and AIDS - Wed, 2019-04-17 21:00
When a violent world event occurs, you may want to find out as much about it as possible. But exposure to media coverage may cause long-term anxiety and stress

Ancient urine reveals early prehistory of domestic sheep and goats

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Wed, 2019-04-17 21:00
Stone Age farmers living in Turkey became more reliant on domestic sheep and goats over a 1000-year period, according to a study of the animals’ preserved urine
Categories: Science and society

Ancient urine reveals early prehistory of domestic sheep and goats

Genetics - Wed, 2019-04-17 21:00
Stone Age farmers living in Turkey became more reliant on domestic sheep and goats over a 1000-year period, according to a study of the animals’ preserved urine
Categories: Biology

Ancient urine reveals early prehistory of domestic sheep and goats

HIV and AIDS - Wed, 2019-04-17 21:00
Stone Age farmers living in Turkey became more reliant on domestic sheep and goats over a 1000-year period, according to a study of the animals’ preserved urine

We’ve found the first type of molecule to form after the big bang

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Wed, 2019-04-17 20:00
The first atoms fused into molecules about 400,000 years after the big bang, and now we’ve seen signs of those earliest types of molecule in a distant nebula
Categories: Science and society

We’ve found the first type of molecule to form after the big bang

Genetics - Wed, 2019-04-17 20:00
The first atoms fused into molecules about 400,000 years after the big bang, and now we’ve seen signs of those earliest types of molecule in a distant nebula
Categories: Biology

We’ve found the first type of molecule to form after the big bang

HIV and AIDS - Wed, 2019-04-17 20:00
The first atoms fused into molecules about 400,000 years after the big bang, and now we’ve seen signs of those earliest types of molecule in a distant nebula

Pig brains have been partly revived after death - what does this mean?

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Wed, 2019-04-17 20:00
Pig brains have been partly revived after their bodies were killed. But what does this mean and how could it be used to help people in emergency situations?
Categories: Science and society

Pig brains have been partly revived after death - what does this mean?

Genetics - Wed, 2019-04-17 20:00
Pig brains have been partly revived after their bodies were killed. But what does this mean and how could it be used to help people in emergency situations?
Categories: Biology

Pig brains have been partly revived after death - what does this mean?

HIV and AIDS - Wed, 2019-04-17 20:00
Pig brains have been partly revived after their bodies were killed. But what does this mean and how could it be used to help people in emergency situations?

Gun that launches cord to wrap around assailant used for first time

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Wed, 2019-04-17 16:57
US police have used a gun that fires a cord around a suspect, binding their limbs and preventing them from moving, for the first time
Categories: Science and society

Gun that launches cord to wrap around assailant used for first time

Genetics - Wed, 2019-04-17 16:57
US police have used a gun that fires a cord around a suspect, binding their limbs and preventing them from moving, for the first time
Categories: Biology

Gun that launches cord to wrap around assailant used for first time

HIV and AIDS - Wed, 2019-04-17 16:57
US police have used a gun that fires a cord around a suspect, binding their limbs and preventing them from moving, for the first time

Distinct roles of two myosins in <i>C</i>. <i>elegans</i> spermatid differentiation

PLOS Biology (new articles) - Tue, 2019-04-16 23:00

by Junyan Hu, Shiya Cheng, Haibin Wang, Xin Li, Sun Liu, Mengmeng Wu, Yubing Liu, Xiaochen Wang

During spermatogenesis, interconnected haploid spermatids segregate undesired cellular contents into residual bodies (RBs) before detaching from RBs. It is unclear how this differentiation process is controlled to produce individual spermatids or motile spermatozoa. Here, we developed a live imaging system to visualize and investigate this process in C. elegans. We found that non-muscle myosin 2 (NMY-2)/myosin II drives incomplete cytokinesis to generate connected haploid spermatids, which are then polarized to segregate undesired cellular contents into RBs under the control of myosin II and myosin VI. NMY-2/myosin II extends from the pseudo-cleavage furrow formed between two haploid spermatids to the spermatid poles, thus promoting RB expansion. In the meantime, defective spermatogenesis 15 (SPE-15)/myosin VI migrates from spermatids towards the expanding RB to promote spermatid budding. Loss of myosin II or myosin VI causes distinct cytoplasm segregation defects, while loss of both myosins completely blocks RB formation. We found that the final separation of spermatids from RBs is achieved through myosin VI–mediated cytokinesis, while myosin II is dispensable at this step. SPE-15/myosin VI and F-actin form a detergent-resistant actomyosin VI ring that undergoes continuous contraction to promote membrane constriction between spermatid and RB. We further identified that RGS-GAIP-interacting protein C terminus (GIPC)-1 and GIPC-2 cooperate with myosin VI to regulate contractile ring formation and spermatid release. Our study reveals distinct roles of myosin II and myosin VI in spermatid differentiation and uncovers a novel myosin VI–mediated cytokinesis process that controls spermatid release.
Categories: Biology, Journals

Oxytocin blocks enhanced motivation for alcohol in alcohol dependence and blocks alcohol effects on GABAergic transmission in the central amygdala

PLOS Biology (new articles) - Tue, 2019-04-16 23:00

by Brendan J. Tunstall, Dean Kirson, Lia J. Zallar, Sam A. McConnell, Janaina C. M. Vendruscolo, Chelsea P. Ho, Christopher S. Oleata, Sophia Khom, Maurice Manning, Mary R. Lee, Lorenzo Leggio, George F. Koob, Marisa Roberto, Leandro F. Vendruscolo

Oxytocin administration has been reported to decrease consumption, withdrawal, and drug-seeking associated with several drugs of abuse and thus represents a promising pharmacological approach to treat drug addiction. We used an established rat model of alcohol dependence to investigate oxytocin’s effects on dependence-induced alcohol drinking, enhanced motivation for alcohol, and altered GABAergic transmission in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Intraperitoneal oxytocin administration blocked escalated alcohol drinking and the enhanced motivation for alcohol in alcohol-dependent but not nondependent rats. Intranasal oxytocin delivery fully replicated these effects. Intraperitoneal administration had minor but significant effects of reducing locomotion and intake of non-alcoholic palatable solutions, whereas intranasal oxytocin administration did not. In dependent rats, intracerebroventricular administration of oxytocin or the oxytocin receptor agonist PF-06655075, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier (i.e., it would not diffuse to the periphery), but not systemic administration of PF-06655075 (i.e., it would not reach the brain), decreased alcohol drinking. Administration of a peripherally restricted oxytocin receptor antagonist did not reverse the effect of intranasal oxytocin on alcohol drinking. Ex vivo electrophysiological recordings from CeA neurons indicated that oxytocin decreases evoked GABA transmission in nondependent but not in dependent rats, whereas oxytocin decreased the amplitude of spontaneous GABAergic responses in both groups. Oxytocin blocked the facilitatory effects of acute alcohol on GABA release in the CeA of dependent but not nondependent rats. Together, these results provide converging evidence that oxytocin specifically and selectively blocks the enhanced motivation for alcohol drinking that develops in alcohol dependence likely via a central mechanism that may result from altered oxytocin effects on CeA GABA transmission in alcohol dependence. Neuroadaptations in endogenous oxytocin signaling may provide a mechanism to further our understanding of alcohol use disorder.
Categories: Biology, Journals