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We've seen methane rain gleaming on the icy plains of Titan

HIV and AIDS - Thu, 2019-01-17 14:29
Images from the Cassini spacecraft have revealed the rainy season near the north pole of Saturn's moon Titan - and it's pretty weird

We've seen methane rain gleaming on the icy plains of Titan

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Thu, 2019-01-17 14:29
Images from the Cassini spacecraft have revealed the rainy season near the north pole of Saturn's moon Titan - and it's pretty weird
Categories: Science and society

Why CERN's plans for a €20 billion supersized collider are a bad idea

Genetics - Thu, 2019-01-17 13:10
The research potential of a proposed massive particle smasher that would dwarf the Large Hadron Collider doesn’t justify its huge price tag, says Sabine Hossenfelder
Categories: Biology

Why CERN's plans for a €20 billion supersized collider are a bad idea

HIV and AIDS - Thu, 2019-01-17 13:10
The research potential of a proposed massive particle smasher that would dwarf the Large Hadron Collider doesn’t justify its huge price tag, says Sabine Hossenfelder

Why CERN's plans for a €20 billion supersized collider are a bad idea

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Thu, 2019-01-17 13:10
The research potential of a proposed massive particle smasher that would dwarf the Large Hadron Collider doesn’t justify its huge price tag, says Sabine Hossenfelder
Categories: Science and society

Rational thinking is saving antibiotics – it could work on Brexit too

Genetics - Thu, 2019-01-17 12:35
The turning of the tide in the fight against bacterial resistance to antibiotics shows the benefits of clear thinking and leadership, and it could work for Brexit too
Categories: Biology

Rational thinking is saving antibiotics – it could work on Brexit too

HIV and AIDS - Thu, 2019-01-17 12:35
The turning of the tide in the fight against bacterial resistance to antibiotics shows the benefits of clear thinking and leadership, and it could work for Brexit too

Rational thinking is saving antibiotics – it could work on Brexit too

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Thu, 2019-01-17 12:35
The turning of the tide in the fight against bacterial resistance to antibiotics shows the benefits of clear thinking and leadership, and it could work for Brexit too
Categories: Science and society

Songwriter AI emulates the Beatles with a little help from its friends

Genetics - Thu, 2019-01-17 12:00
Many songwriters have honed their skills listening to the Beatles. Now AI has done the same by learning to write pop songs that mimic their style
Categories: Biology

Songwriter AI emulates the Beatles with a little help from its friends

HIV and AIDS - Thu, 2019-01-17 12:00
Many songwriters have honed their skills listening to the Beatles. Now AI has done the same by learning to write pop songs that mimic their style

Songwriter AI emulates the Beatles with a little help from its friends

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Thu, 2019-01-17 12:00
Many songwriters have honed their skills listening to the Beatles. Now AI has done the same by learning to write pop songs that mimic their style
Categories: Science and society

Mathematician’s record-beating formula can generate 50 prime numbers

Genetics - Thu, 2019-01-17 10:00
Figuring out the pattern of the primes is one of the long-standing mysteries of maths, and now there is a way to spit some out on demand
Categories: Biology

Mathematician’s record-beating formula can generate 50 prime numbers

HIV and AIDS - Thu, 2019-01-17 10:00
Figuring out the pattern of the primes is one of the long-standing mysteries of maths, and now there is a way to spit some out on demand

Mathematician’s record-beating formula can generate 50 prime numbers

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Thu, 2019-01-17 10:00
Figuring out the pattern of the primes is one of the long-standing mysteries of maths, and now there is a way to spit some out on demand
Categories: Science and society

CD4 occupancy triggers sequential pre-fusion conformational states of the HIV-1 envelope trimer with relevance for broadly neutralizing antibody activity

PLOS Biology (new articles) - Thu, 2019-01-17 00:00

by Branislav Ivan, Zhaozhi Sun, Harini Subbaraman, Nikolas Friedrich, Alexandra Trkola

During the entry process, the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer undergoes a sequence of conformational changes triggered by both CD4 and coreceptor engagement. Resolving the conformation of these transient entry intermediates has proven challenging. Here, we fine-mapped the antigenicity of entry intermediates induced by increasing CD4 engagement of cell surface–expressed Env. Escalating CD4 triggering led to the sequential adoption of different pre-fusion conformational states of the Env trimer, up to the pre-hairpin conformation, that we assessed for antibody epitope presentation. Maximal accessibility of the coreceptor binding site was detected below Env saturation by CD4. Exposure of the fusion peptide and heptad repeat 1 (HR1) required higher CD4 occupancy. Analyzing the diverse antigenic states of the Env trimer, we obtained key insights into the transitions in epitope accessibility of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). Several bnAbs preferentially bound CD4-triggered Env, indicating a potential capacity to neutralize both pre- and post-CD4 engagement, which needs to be explored. Assessing binding and neutralization activity of bnAbs, we confirm antibody dissociation rates as a driver of incomplete neutralization. Collectively, our findings highlight a need to resolve Env conformations that are neutralization-relevant to provide guidance for immunogen development.
Categories: Biology, Journals

Engineered bacteria could mop up toxic ammonia in the human gut

Genetics - Wed, 2019-01-16 21:00
Toxic ammonia can build up in the guts of people with certain disorders – probiotics containing bacteria engineered to break down the toxin could help
Categories: Biology

Engineered bacteria could mop up toxic ammonia in the human gut

HIV and AIDS - Wed, 2019-01-16 21:00
Toxic ammonia can build up in the guts of people with certain disorders – probiotics containing bacteria engineered to break down the toxin could help

Engineered bacteria could mop up toxic ammonia in the human gut

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Wed, 2019-01-16 21:00
Toxic ammonia can build up in the guts of people with certain disorders – probiotics containing bacteria engineered to break down the toxin could help
Categories: Science and society

Robot dog taught itself to get back up when people kick it over

Genetics - Wed, 2019-01-16 21:00
The ANYmal robot is about the size of a large dog. AI has taught it to stand up after being pushed over by researchers
Categories: Biology

Robot dog taught itself to get back up when people kick it over

HIV and AIDS - Wed, 2019-01-16 21:00
The ANYmal robot is about the size of a large dog. AI has taught it to stand up after being pushed over by researchers