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Dealing with Pervasive Transcription

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-21 02:00
Torben Heick Jensen, Alain Jacquier, Domenico Libri. Eukaryotic genomes are pervasively transcribed. However, it is unclear how many newly found RNAs have functions and how many are byproducts of functional, or spurious, transcription events. Cells ....

Molecular Insights into microRNA-Mediated Translational Repression in Plants

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-21 02:00
Hiro-oki Iwakawa, Yukihide Tomari. microRNAs (miRNAs) bind Argonaute proteins in order to form RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) that can silence the expression of complementary mRNAs. Plant miRNAs can mediate the cleavage of....

Tsix RNA and the Germline Factor, PRDM14, Link X Reactivation and Stem Cell Reprogramming

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-21 02:00
Bernhard Payer, Michael Rosenberg, Masashi Yamaji, Yukihiro Yabuta, Michiyo Koyanagi-Aoi, Katsuhiko Hayashi, Shinya Yamanaka, Mitinori Saitou, Jeannie T. Lee. Transitions between pluripotent and differentiated states are marked by dramatic epigenetic changes. Cellular differentiation is tightly linked to X chromosome inactivation (XCI), whereas reprogra....

PPL2 Translesion Polymerase Is Essential for the Completion of Chromosomal DNA Replication in the African Trypanosome

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-21 02:00
Sean G. Rudd, Lucy Glover, Stanislaw K. Jozwiakowski, David Horn, Aidan J. Doherty. Faithful copying of the genome is essential for life. In eukaryotes, a single archaeo-eukaryotic primase (AEP), DNA primase, is required for the initiation and progression of DNA replication. Here....

Spindle Formation in the Mouse Embryo Requires Plk4 in the Absence of Centrioles

Developmental Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-21 02:00
Paula A. Coelho, Leah Bury, Bedra Sharif, Maria G. Riparbelli, Jingyan Fu, Giuliano Callaini, David M. Glover, Magdalena Zernicka-Goetz. During the first five rounds of cell division in the mouse embryo, spindles assemble in the absence of centrioles. Spindle formation initiates around chromosomes, but the microtubule nucleating pr....
Categories: Biology, Journals

Atg9 Interacts with dTRAF2/TRAF6 to Regulate Oxidative Stress-Induced JNK Activation and Autophagy Induction

Developmental Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-21 02:00
Hong-Wen Tang, Hsiao-Man Liao, Wen-Hsin Peng, Hong-Ru Lin, Chun-Hong Chen, Guang-Chao Chen. Autophagy is a highly conserved catabolic process that degrades and recycles intracellular components through the lysosomes. Atg9 is the only integral membrane protein among autophagy-related (Atg....
Categories: Biology, Journals

Catalytic Mechanism of Stereospecific Formation of cis-Configured Prenylated Pyrroloindoline Diketopiperazines by Indole Prenyltransferases

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-14 02:00
Xia Yu, Georg Zocher, Xiulan Xie, Mike Liebhold, Stefan Schütz, Thilo Stehle, Shu-Ming Li. Indole prenyltransferases AnaPT, CdpC3PT, and CdpNPT are known to catalyze the formation of prenylated pyrroloindoline diketopiperazines from tryptophan-containing cyclic dipeptides in one-step re....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

The Polycomb Protein Ezh2 Regulates Differentiation and Plasticity of CD4+ T Helper Type 1 and Type 2 Cells

Immunity (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-14 02:00
Damon J. Tumes, Atsushi Onodera, Akane Suzuki, Kenta Shinoda, Yusuke Endo, Chiaki Iwamura, Hiroyuki Hosokawa, Haruhiko Koseki, Koji Tokoyoda, Yutaka Suzuki, Shinichiro Motohashi, Toshinori Nakayama. After antigen encounter by CD4+ T cells, polarizing cytokines induce the expression of master regulators that control differentiation. Inactivation of the histone methyltransferase Ezh2....

Self-antigen-Driven Activation Induces Instability of Regulatory T Cells during an Inflammatory Autoimmune Response

Immunity (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-14 02:00
Samantha L. Bailey-Bucktrout, Marc Martinez-Llordella, Xuyu Zhou, Bryan Anthony, Wendy Rosenthal, Herve Luche, Hans J. Fehling, Jeffrey A. Bluestone. Stable Foxp3 expression is crucial for regulatory T (Treg) cell function. We observed that antigen-driven activation and inflammation in the CNS promoted Foxp3 instability selectively in the autor....

The Spleen in Local and Systemic Regulation of Immunity

Immunity (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-14 02:00
Vincenzo Bronte, Mikael J. Pittet. The spleen is the main filter for blood-borne pathogens and antigens, as well as a key organ for iron metabolism and erythrocyte homeostasis. Also, immune and hematopoietic functions have been rec....

Septic Shock: On the Importance of Being Tolerant

Immunity (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-14 02:00
Ruslan Medzhitov. A study by Figueiredo et al. (2013) in this issue of Immunity demonstrates that administration of anthracyclines induces autophagy in vivo and has a powerful protective effect in a mouse mo....

Crystal Structure of Vδ1 T Cell Receptor in Complex with CD1d-Sulfatide Shows MHC-like Recognition of a Self-Lipid by Human γδ T Cells

Immunity (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-14 02:00
Adrienne M. Luoma, Caitlin D. Castro, Toufic Mayassi, Leslie A. Bembinster, Li Bai, Damien Picard, Brian Anderson, Louise Scharf, Jennifer E. Kung, Leah V. Sibener, Paul B. Savage, Bana Jabri, Albert Bendelac, Erin J. Adams. The nature of the antigens recognized by γδ T cells and their potential recognition of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-like molecules has remained unclear. Members of the CD1 family of lipi....

A Sting in the Tale of Th2 Immunity

Immunity (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-14 02:00
Dario A. Gutierrez, Hans-Reimer Rodewald. Allergies are widely considered misguided Th2 cell responses. In this issue, Palm et al. (2013) and Marichal et al. (2013) show that mice mount anti-venom Th2 cell responses that share components ....

The let-7/LIN-41 Pathway Regulates Reprogramming to Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Controlling Expression of Prodifferentiation Genes

Stem Cell: most read - Thu, 2013-11-14 02:00
Kathleen A. Worringer, Tim A. Rand, Yohei Hayashi, Salma Sami, Kazutoshi Takahashi, Koji Tanabe, Megumi Narita, Deepak Srivastava, Shinya Yamanaka. Reprogramming differentiated cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) promotes a broad array of cellular changes. Here we show that the let-7 family of microRNAs acts as an inhibit....
Categories: Biology, Journals, Stem Cells

Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Regulates Normal Hematopoietic Stem Cell Function in a Developmental-Stage-Specific Manner

Stem Cell: most read - Thu, 2013-11-14 02:00
Huafeng Xie, Jian Xu, Jessie H. Hsu, Minh Nguyen, Yuko Fujiwara, Cong Peng, Stuart H. Orkin. Recent studies point to a pivotal role of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) in stem cell function and cancer. Loss-of-function approaches targeting individual PRC2 subunits have, however, gener....
Categories: Biology, Journals, Stem Cells

Identification of an Allosteric Pocket on Human Hsp70 Reveals a Mode of Inhibition of This Therapeutically Important Protein

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-14 02:00
Anna Rodina, Pallav D. Patel, Yanlong Kang, Yogita Patel, Imad Baaklini, Michael J.H. Wong, Tony Taldone, Pengrong Yan, Chenghua Yang, Ronnie Maharaj, Alexander Gozman, Maulik R. Patel, Hardik J. Patel, William Chirico, Hediye Erdjument-Bromage, Tanaji T. Talele, Jason C. Young, Gabriela Chiosis. Hsp70s are important cancer chaperones that act upstream of Hsp90 and exhibit independent anti-apoptotic activities. To develop chemical tools for the study of human Hsp70, we developed a homology....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

Open Questions in Lipid Droplet Biology

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-14 02:00
Yuki Ohsaki, Michitaka Suzuki, Toyoshi Fujimoto. Lipid droplets (LDs) have been the focus of intense research for the past decade because of their active engagement in lipid metabolism and relationship with diseases. In contrast to other intrace....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

The End of an Old Hypothesis: The Pseudomonas Signaling Molecules 4-Hydroxy-2-Alkylquinolines Derive from Fatty Acids, Not 3-Ketofatty Acids

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-14 02:00
Carlos Eduardo Dulcey, Valérie Dekimpe, David-Alexandre Fauvelle, Sylvain Milot, Marie-Christine Groleau, Nicolas Doucet, Laurence G. Rahme, François Lépine, Eric Déziel. Groups of pathogenic bacteria use diffusible signals to regulate their virulence in a concerted manner. Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses 4-hydroxy-2-alkylquinolines (HAQs), including 4-hydroxy-2....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

A Bacterial Toxin Inhibits DNA Replication Elongation through a Direct Interaction with the β Sliding Clamp

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-14 02:00
Christopher D. Aakre, Tuyen N. Phung, David Huang, Michael T. Laub. Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are ubiquitous on bacterial chromosomes, yet the mechanisms regulating their activity and the molecular targets of toxins remain incompletely defined. Here, we identif....

Regulation of Heterochromatin Transcription by Snail1/LOXL2 during Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-14 02:00
Alba Millanes-Romero, Nicolás Herranz, Valentina Perrera, Ane Iturbide, Jordina Loubat-Casanovas, Jesús Gil, Thomas Jenuwein, Antonio García de Herreros, Sandra Peiró. Although heterochromatin is enriched with repressive traits, it is also actively transcribed, giving rise to large amounts of noncoding RNAs. Although these RNAs are responsible for the formation ....