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Cleavage of TFIIA by Taspase1 Activates TRF2-Specified Mammalian Male Germ Cell Programs

Developmental Cell (most read) - Mon, 2013-10-28 02:00
Toshinao Oyama, Satoru Sasagawa, Shugaku Takeda, Rex A. Hess, Paul M. Lieberman, Emily H. Cheng, James J. Hsieh. The evolution of tissue-specific general transcription factors (GTFs), such as testis-specific TBP-related factor 2 (TRF2), enables the spatiotemporal expression of highly specialized genetic prog....
Categories: Biology, Journals

A Network of Interactions Enables CCM3 and STK24 to Coordinate UNC13D-Driven Vesicle Exocytosis in Neutrophils

Developmental Cell (most read) - Mon, 2013-10-28 02:00
Yong Zhang, Wenwen Tang, Haifeng Zhang, Xiaofeng Niu, Yingke Xu, Jiasheng Zhang, Kun Gao, Weijun Pan, Titus J. Boggon, Derek Toomre, Wang Min, Dianqing Wu. Neutrophil degranulation plays an important role in acute innate immune responses and is tightly regulated because the granule contents can cause tissue damage. However, this regulation remains po....
Categories: Biology, Journals

A Beneficial Role for Immunoglobulin E in Host Defense against Honeybee Venom

Immunity (most read) - Thu, 2013-10-24 02:00
Thomas Marichal, Philipp Starkl, Laurent L. Reber, Janet Kalesnikoff, Hans C. Oettgen, Mindy Tsai, Martin Metz, Stephen J. Galli. Allergies are widely considered to be misdirected type 2 immune responses, in which immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies are produced against any of a broad range of seemingly harmless antigens. Howe....

Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 Induces a Primary Type 2 Response that Is Dependent on the Receptor ST2 and Confers Protective Immunity

Immunity (most read) - Thu, 2013-10-24 02:00
Noah W. Palm, Rachel K. Rosenstein, Shuang Yu, Dominik D. Schenten, Esther Florsheim, Ruslan Medzhitov. Venoms consist of toxic components that are delivered to their victims via bites or stings. Venoms also represent a major class of allergens in humans. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is a conserved compo....

PrimPol, an Archaic Primase/Polymerase Operating in Human Cells

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-10-24 02:00
Sara García-Gómez, Aurelio Reyes, María I. Martínez-Jiménez, E. Sandra Chocrón, Silvana Mourón, Gloria Terrados, Christopher Powell, Eduardo Salido, Juan Méndez, Ian J. Holt, Luis Blanco. We describe a second primase in human cells, PrimPol, which has the ability to start DNA chains with deoxynucleotides unlike regular primases, which use exclusively ribonucleotides. Moreover, Prim....

The DNA Translocase FANCM/MHF Promotes Replication Traverse of DNA Interstrand Crosslinks

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-10-24 02:00
Jing Huang, Shuo Liu, Marina A. Bellani, Arun Kalliat Thazhathveetil, Chen Ling, Johan P. de Winter, Yinsheng Wang, Weidong Wang, Michael M. Seidman. The replicative machinery encounters many impediments, some of which can be overcome by lesion bypass or replication restart pathways, leaving repair for a later time. However, interstrand crossli....

Braking BRAF: AMPK Leaves ERK Stranded in the Desert

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-10-24 02:00
Matthew Martin, Richard Marais. In this issue, Shen et al. (2013) show that BRAF phosphorylation by AMPK attenuates BRAF signaling and inhibits cell proliferation. This identifies BRAF as a novel AMPK substrate and further revea....

Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of an Allosteric Inhibitor of HSET that Targets Cancer Cells with Supernumerary Centrosomes

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Thu, 2013-10-24 02:00
Ciorsdaidh A. Watts, Frances M. Richards, Andreas Bender, Peter J. Bond, Oliver Korb, Oliver Kern, Michelle Riddick, Paul Owen, Rebecca M. Myers, Jordan Raff, Fanni Gergely, Duncan I. Jodrell, Steven V. Ley. Centrosomes associate with spindle poles; thus, the presence of two centrosomes promotes bipolar spindle assembly in normal cells. Cancer cells often contain supernumerary centrosomes, and to avoi....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

Autophosphorylation Activity of a Soluble Hexameric Histidine Kinase Correlates with the Shift in Protein Conformational Equilibrium

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Thu, 2013-10-24 02:00
Marta Wojnowska, Jun Yan, Ganesh N. Sivalingam, Adam Cryar, Jayesh Gor, Konstantinos Thalassinos, Snezana Djordjevic. In a commonly accepted model, in response to stimuli, bacterial histidine kinases undergo a conformational transition between an active and inactive form. Structural information on histidine kinas....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

Biochemical and Structural Studies of Conserved Maf Proteins Revealed Nucleotide Pyrophosphatases with a Preference for Modified Nucleotides

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Thu, 2013-10-24 02:00
Anatoli Tchigvintsev, Dmitri Tchigvintsev, Robert Flick, Ana Popovic, Aiping Dong, Xiaohui Xu, Greg Brown, Wenyun Lu, Hong Wu, Hong Cui, Ludmila Dombrowski, Jeong Chan Joo, Natalia Beloglazova, Jinrong Min, Alexei Savchenko, Amy A. Caudy, Joshua D. Rabinowitz, Alexey G. Murzin, Alexander F. Yakunin. Maf (for multicopy associated filamentation) proteins represent a large family of conserved proteins implicated in cell division arrest but whose biochemical activity remains unknown. Here, we sho....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

Site-Specific Differences in Proteasome-Dependent Degradation of Monoubiquitinated α-Synuclein

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Thu, 2013-10-24 02:00
Tharindumala Abeywardana, Yu Hsuan Lin, Ruth Rott, Simone Engelender, Matthew R. Pratt. The formation of toxic aggregates composed largely of the protein α-synuclein are a hallmark of Parkinson’s disease. Evidence from both early-onset forms of the disease in humans and animal models....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

Curing Baldness Activates Antibiotic Production

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Thu, 2013-10-24 02:00
Keith F. Chater. Kalan and colleagues describe an unusual way of activating a “silent” gene cluster for the biosynthesis of a new antibiotic by analyzing and curing the aerial growth defect of an old Streptomyc....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

A Jack of All Trades to Combat Drug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Thu, 2013-10-24 02:00
Thomas Kodadek. In this issue of Chemistry & Biology, Jahnsen and colleagues describe a multimodal mechanism of action of an unusual peptide-peptoid hybrid with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. T....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

Precocious Acquisition of Neuroepithelial Character in the Eye Field Underlies the Onset of Eye Morphogenesis

Developmental Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-10-24 02:00
Kenzo Ivanovitch, Florencia Cavodeassi, Stephen W. Wilson. Using high-resolution live imaging in zebrafish, we show that presumptive eye cells acquire apicobasal polarity and adopt neuroepithelial character prior to other regions of the neural plate. Neur....
Categories: Biology, Journals

LDL Cholesterol Recycles to the Plasma Membrane via a Rab8a-Myosin5b-Actin-Dependent Membrane Transport Route

Developmental Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-10-24 02:00
Kristiina Kanerva, Riikka-Liisa Uronen, Tomas Blom, Shiqian Li, Robert Bittman, Pekka Lappalainen, Johan Peränen, Graça Raposo, Elina Ikonen. Mammalian cells acquire cholesterol, a major membrane constituent, via low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake. However, the mechanisms by which LDL cholesterol reaches the plasma membrane (PM) have ....
Categories: Biology, Journals

Circulating Precursor CCR7loPD-1hi CXCR5+ CD4+ T Cells Indicate Tfh Cell Activity and Promote Antibody Responses upon Antigen Reexposure

Immunity (most read) - Thu, 2013-10-17 02:00
Jing He, Louis M. Tsai, Yew Ann Leong, Xin Hu, Cindy S. Ma, Nina Chevalier, Xiaolin Sun, Kirsten Vandenberg, Steve Rockman, Yan Ding, Lei Zhu, Wei Wei, Changqi Wang, Alexander Karnowski, Gabrielle T. Belz, Joanna R. Ghali, Matthew C. Cook, D. Sean Riminton, André Veillette, Pamela L. Schwartzberg, Fabienne Mackay, Robert Brink, Stuart G. Tangye, Carola G. Vinuesa, Charles R. Mackay, Zhanguo Li, Di Yu. Follicular B helper T (Tfh) cells support high affinity and long-term antibody responses. Here we found that within circulating CXCR5+ CD4+ T cells in humans and mice, the CC....

Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Intratumoral Immune Cells Reveal the Immune Landscape in Human Cancer

Immunity (most read) - Thu, 2013-10-17 02:00
Gabriela Bindea, Bernhard Mlecnik, Marie Tosolini, Amos Kirilovsky, Maximilian Waldner, Anna C. Obenauf, Helen Angell, Tessa Fredriksen, Lucie Lafontaine, Anne Berger, Patrick Bruneval, Wolf Herman Fridman, Christoph Becker, Franck Pagès, Michael R. Speicher, Zlatko Trajanoski, Jérôme Galon. The complex interactions between tumors and their microenvironment remain to be elucidated. Combining large-scale approaches, we examined the spatio-temporal dynamics of 28 different immune cell t....

Th9 Cells Drive Host Immunity against Gastrointestinal Worm Infection

Immunity (most read) - Thu, 2013-10-17 02:00
Paula Licona-Limón, Jorge Henao-Mejia, Angela U. Temann, Nicola Gagliani, Ileana Licona-Limón, Harumichi Ishigame, Liming Hao, De’Broski R. Herbert, Richard A. Flavell. Type 2 inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13, drive the characteristic features of immunity against parasitic worms and allergens. Whether IL-9 serves an es....

Blood Tfh Cells Come with Colors

Immunity (most read) - Thu, 2013-10-17 02:00
Nathalie Schmitt, Hideki Ueno. Blood CXCR5+ CD4+ T cells share phenotypic and functional similarities with T follicular helper cells. Studies by He et al. (2013) and Locci et al. (2013) in this issue of

A “Big Data” View of the Tumor “Immunome”

Immunity (most read) - Thu, 2013-10-17 02:00
Nicholas P. Restifo. Tumors are complex masses containing not just neoplastic cells but also stromal cells, neovasculature, and a gamut of immune cells. In this issue, Bindea et al. (2013) identify a surprising new “i....