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Induction of a Human Pluripotent State with Distinct Regulatory Circuitry that Resembles Preimplantation Epiblast

Stem Cell: most read - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Yun-Shen Chan, Jonathan Göke, Jia-Hui Ng, Xinyi Lu, Kevin Andrew Uy Gonzales, Cheng-Peow Tan, Wei-Quan Tng, Zhong-Zhi Hong, Yee-Siang Lim, Huck-Hui Ng. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst. Despite sharing the common property of pluripotency, hESCs are notably distinct from epiblast cells of th....
Categories: Biology, Journals, Stem Cells

Human iPSC-Based Modeling of Late-Onset Disease via Progerin-Induced Aging

Stem Cell: most read - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Justine D. Miller, Yosif M. Ganat, Sarah Kishinevsky, Robert L. Bowman, Becky Liu, Edmund Y. Tu, Pankaj K. Mandal, Elsa Vera, Jae-won Shim, Sonja Kriks, Tony Taldone, Noemi Fusaki, Mark J. Tomishima, Dimitri Krainc, Teresa A. Milner, Derrick J. Rossi, Lorenz Studer. Reprogramming somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) resets their identity back to an embryonic age and, thus, presents a significant hurdle for modeling late-onset disorders. In ....
Categories: Biology, Journals, Stem Cells

Distinct Functions for Wnt/β-Catenin in Hair Follicle Stem Cell Proliferation and Survival and Interfollicular Epidermal Homeostasis

Stem Cell: most read - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Yeon Sook Choi, Yuhang Zhang, Mingang Xu, Yongguang Yang, Mayumi Ito, Tien Peng, Zheng Cui, Andras Nagy, Anna-Katerina Hadjantonakis, Richard A. Lang, George Cotsarelis, Thomas Andl, Edward E. Morrisey, Sarah E. Millar. Wnt/β-catenin signaling is a central regulator of adult stem cells. Variable sensitivity of Wnt reporter transgenes, β-catenin’s dual roles in adhesion and signaling, and hair follicle degradation....
Categories: Biology, Journals, Stem Cells

Posttranscriptional RNA Modifications: Playing Metabolic Games in a Cell’s Chemical Legoland

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Mark Helm, Juan D. Alfonzo. Nature combines existing biochemical building blocks, at times with subtlety of purpose. RNA modifications are a prime example of this, where standard RNA nucleosides are decorated with chemical g....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

PKM2 Regulates Chromosome Segregation and Mitosis Progression of Tumor Cells

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Yuhui Jiang, Xinjian Li, Weiwei Yang, David H. Hawke, Yanhua Zheng, Yan Xia, Kenneth Aldape, Chongyang Wei, Fang Guo, Yan Chen, Zhimin Lu. Tumor-specific pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is instrumental in both aerobic glycolysis and gene transcription. PKM2 regulates G1-S phase transition by controlling cyclin D1 expression. However, it is....

DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Pathway Choice Is Directed by Distinct MRE11 Nuclease Activities

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Atsushi Shibata, Davide Moiani, Andrew S. Arvai, Jefferson Perry, Shane M. Harding, Marie-Michelle Genois, Ranjan Maity, Sari van Rossum-Fikkert, Aryandi Kertokalio, Filippo Romoli, Amani Ismail, Ermal Ismalaj, Elena Petricci, Matthew J. Neale, Robert G. Bristow, Jean-Yves Masson, Claire Wyman, Penny A. Jeggo, John A. Tainer. MRE11 within the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex acts in DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR), detection, and signaling; yet, how its endo- and exonuclease activities regulate DSBR by nonhomologou....

ELABELA: A Hormone Essential for Heart Development Signals via the Apelin Receptor

Developmental Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Serene C. Chng, Lena Ho, Jing Tian, Bruno Reversade. We report here the discovery and characterization of a gene, ELABELA (ELA), encoding a conserved hormone of 32 amino acids. Present in human embryonic stem cells, ELA is expressed at....
Categories: Biology, Journals

Medical genetic inspirations for anticancer drug repurposing

Trends in Pharmacological Sciences - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Zhong-Yi Wang, Yuan Quan, Hong-Yu Zhang.
Categories: Biology, Healthcare, Journals

Arabidopsis TOL Proteins Act as Gatekeepers for Vacuolar Sorting of PIN2 Plasma Membrane Protein

Current Biology - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Barbara Korbei, Jeanette Moulinier-Anzola, Lucinda De-Araujo, Doris Lucyshyn, Katarzyna Retzer, Muhammad A. Khan, Christian Luschnig. Controlling variations in plasma membrane (PM) protein abundance is of utmost importance for development in higher plants. For modulating PM protein activity, endocytosed proteins can be either cy....
Categories: Biology, Journals

A Differential Cargo-Loading Model of Ciliary Length Regulation by IFT

Current Biology - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Kathryne N. Wren, Julie M. Craft, Douglas Tritschler, Alexandria Schauer, Deep K. Patel, Elizabeth F. Smith, Mary E. Porter, Peter Kner, Karl F. Lechtreck. BackgroundDuring the assembly and maintenance of cilia, precursor proteins need to be transported from the cell body into the organelle. Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is assumed to be the predomi....
Categories: Biology, Journals

Olfactory Preference for Egg Laying on Citrus Substrates in Drosophila

Current Biology - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Hany K.M. Dweck, Shimaa A.M. Ebrahim, Sophie Kromann, Deni Bown, Ylva Hillbur, Silke Sachse, Bill S. Hansson, Marcus C. Stensmyr. BackgroundEgg-laying animals, such as insects, ensure the survival of their offspring by depositing their eggs in favorable environments. To identify suitable oviposition sites, insects, such as t....
Categories: Biology, Journals

The Unfolded Protein Response in a Pair of Sensory Neurons Promotes Entry of C. elegans into Dauer Diapause

Current Biology - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Warakorn Kulalert, Dennis H. Kim. In response to unfavorable environmental conditions such as starvation, crowding, and elevated temperature, Caenorhabditis elegans larvae enter an alternative developmental stage known as d....
Categories: Biology, Journals

Colponemids Represent Multiple Ancient Alveolate Lineages

Current Biology - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Jan Janouškovec, Denis V. Tikhonenkov, Kirill V. Mikhailov, Timur G. Simdyanov, Vladimir V. Aleoshin, Alexander P. Mylnikov, Patrick J. Keeling. The alveolates comprise three well-studied protist lineages of significant environmental, medical, and economical importance: apicomplexans (e.g., Plasmodium), dinoflagellates (e.g., Sym....
Categories: Biology, Journals

Rhythmic Sampling within and between Objects despite Sustained Attention at a Cued Location

Current Biology - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Ian C. Fiebelkorn, Yuri B. Saalmann, Sabine Kastner. The brain directs its limited processing resources through various selection mechanisms, broadly referred to as attention. The present study investigated the temporal dynamics of two such selectio....
Categories: Biology, Journals

Gradual Molecular Evolution of a Sex Determination Switch through Incomplete Penetrance of Femaleness

Current Biology - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Martin Beye, Christine Seelmann, Tanja Gempe, Martin Hasselmann, Xavier Vekemans, M. Kim Fondrk, Robert E. Page. Some genes regulate phenotypes that are either present or absent. They are often important regulators of developmental switches and are involved in morphological evolution. We have little understa....
Categories: Biology, Journals

Exploring Intermolecular Interactions of a Substrate Binding Protein Using a Riboswitch-Based Sensor

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Wed, 2013-11-27 02:00
Casey C. Fowler, Seiji Sugiman-Marangos, Murray S. Junop, Eric D. Brown, Yingfu Li. The study of biological transporters can be hampered by a dearth of methodology for tracking their activity within cells. Here, we present a means of monitoring the function of transport machinery....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

Neonatal Fc Receptor Expression in Dendritic Cells Mediates Protective Immunity against Colorectal Cancer

Immunity (most read) - Wed, 2013-11-27 02:00
Kristi Baker, Timo Rath, Magdalena B. Flak, Janelle C. Arthur, Zhangguo Chen, Jonathan N. Glickman, Inti Zlobec, Eva Karamitopoulou, Matthew D. Stachler, Robert D. Odze, Wayne I. Lencer, Christian Jobin, Richard S. Blumberg. Cancers arising in mucosal tissues account for a disproportionately large fraction of malignancies. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and the neonatal Fc receptor for IgG (FcRn) have an important function in....

Deubiquitinating Enzyme Specificity for Ubiquitin Chain Topology Profiled by Di-Ubiquitin Activity Probes

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Wed, 2013-11-27 02:00
Joanna F. McGouran, Selina R. Gaertner, Mikael Altun, Holger B. Kramer, Benedikt M. Kessler. Posttranslational modification with ubiquitin (Ub) controls many cellular processes, and aberrant ubiquitination can contribute to cancer, immunopathology, and neurodegeneration. The versatility a....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

A Small-Molecule Inducer of PDX1 Expression Identified by High-Throughput Screening

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Wed, 2013-11-27 02:00
Yuan Yuan, Kate Hartland, Zarko Boskovic, Yikai Wang, Deepika Walpita, Philippe A. Lysy, Cheng Zhong, Damian W. Young, Young-kwon Kim, Nicola J. Tolliday, Etienne M. Sokal, Stuart L. Schreiber, Bridget K. Wagner. Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1), a member of the homeodomain-containing transcription factor family, is a key transcription factor important for both pancreas development and mature β ce....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

Polycomb-Dependent H3K27me1 and H3K27me2 Regulate Active Transcription and Enhancer Fidelity

Molecular Cell (most read) - Wed, 2013-11-27 02:00
Karin J. Ferrari, Andrea Scelfo, SriGanesh Jammula, Alessandro Cuomo, Iros Barozzi, Alexandra Stützer, Wolfgang Fischle, Tiziana Bonaldi, Diego Pasini. H3K27me3 is deposited at promoters by the preferential association of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) with CpG-rich DNA elements regulating development by repressing gene transcription. H3K27....