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Acetylation of RNA Polymerase II Regulates Growth-Factor-Induced Gene Transcription in Mammalian Cells

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-07 02:00
Sebastian Schröder, Eva Herker, Friederike Itzen, Daniel He, Sean Thomas, Daniel A. Gilchrist, Katrin Kaehlcke, Sungyoo Cho, Katherine S. Pollard, John A. Capra, Martina Schnölzer, Philip A. Cole, Matthias Geyer, Benoit G. Bruneau, Karen Adelman, Melanie Ott. Lysine acetylation regulates transcription by targeting histones and nonhistone proteins. Here we report that the central regulator of transcription, RNA polymerase II, is subject to acetylation i....

Transient Activation of Autophagy via Sox2-Mediated Suppression of mTOR Is an Important Early Step in Reprogramming to Pluripotency

Stem Cell: most read - Thu, 2013-11-07 02:00
Shuo Wang, Pengyan Xia, Buqing Ye, Guanling Huang, Jing Liu, Zusen Fan. Autophagy is an essential cellular mechanism that degrades cytoplasmic proteins and organelles to recycle their components. Here we show that autophagy is required for reprogramming of somatic cel....
Categories: Biology, Journals, Stem Cells

Transient Maternal IL-6 Mediates Long-Lasting Changes in Neural Stem Cell Pools by Deregulating an Endogenous Self-Renewal Pathway

Stem Cell: most read - Thu, 2013-11-07 02:00
Denis Gallagher, Andreea A. Norman, Cameron L. Woodard, Guang Yang, Andrée Gauthier-Fisher, Masashi Fujitani, John P. Vessey, Gonzalo I. Cancino, Nadia Sachewsky, Knut Woltjen, Michael P. Fatt, Cindi M. Morshead, David R. Kaplan, Freda D. Miller. The mechanisms that regulate the establishment of adult stem cell pools during normal and perturbed mammalian development are still largely unknown. Here, we asked whether a maternal cytokine surg....
Categories: Biology, Journals, Stem Cells

Deciphering Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Their Niches: A Critical Appraisal of Genetic Models, Lineage Tracing, and Imaging Strategies

Stem Cell: most read - Thu, 2013-11-07 02:00
Chacko Joseph, Julie M. Quach, Carl R. Walkley, Steven W. Lane, Cristina Lo Celso, Louise E. Purton. In recent years, technical developments in mouse genetics and imaging equipment have substantially advanced our understanding of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their niche. The availability o....
Categories: Biology, Journals, Stem Cells

PI3K-δ and PI3K-γ Inhibition by IPI-145 Abrogates Immune Responses and Suppresses Activity in Autoimmune and Inflammatory Disease Models

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-07 02:00
David G. Winkler, Kerrie L. Faia, Jonathan P. DiNitto, Janid A. Ali, Kerry F. White, Erin E. Brophy, Melissa M. Pink, Jennifer L. Proctor, Jennifer Lussier, Christian M. Martin, Jennifer G. Hoyt, Bonnie Tillotson, Erin L. Murphy, Alice R. Lim, Brian D. Thomas, John R. MacDougall, Pingda Ren, Yi Liu, Lian-Sheng Li, Katti A. Jessen, Christian C. Fritz, Joi L. Dunbar, James R. Porter, Christian Rommel, Vito J. Palombella, Paul S. Changelian, Jeffery L. Kutok. Phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)-δ and PI3K-γ are preferentially expressed in immune cells, and inhibitors targeting these isoforms are hypothesized to have anti-inflammatory activity by affecting....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

Germinal Center Centroblasts Transition to a Centrocyte Phenotype According to a Timed Program and Depend on the Dark Zone for Effective Selection

Immunity (most read) - Thu, 2013-10-31 02:00
Oliver Bannard, Robert M. Horton, Christopher D.C. Allen, Jinping An, Takashi Nagasawa, Jason G. Cyster. Germinal center (GC) B cells cycle between the dark zone (DZ) and light zone (LZ) during antibody affinity maturation. Whether this movement is necessary for GC function has not been tested. Here ....

Anthracyclines Induce DNA Damage Response-Mediated Protection against Severe Sepsis

Immunity (most read) - Thu, 2013-10-31 02:00
Nuno Figueiredo, Angelo Chora, Helena Raquel, Nadja Pejanovic, Pedro Pereira, Björn Hartleben, Ana Neves-Costa, Catarina Moita, Dora Pedroso, Andreia Pinto, Sofia Marques, Hafeez Faridi, Paulo Costa, Raffaella Gozzelino, Jimmy L. Zhao, Miguel P. Soares, Margarida Gama-Carvalho, Jennifer Martinez, Qingshuo Zhang, Gerd Döring, Markus Grompe, J. Pedro Simas, Tobias B. Huber, David Baltimore, Vineet Gupta, Douglas R. Green, João A. Ferreira, Luis F. Moita. Severe sepsis remains a poorly understood systemic inflammatory condition with high mortality rates and limited therapeutic options in addition to organ support measures. Here we show that the cli....

Origins and Functional Specialization of Macrophages and of Conventional and Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells in Mouse Skin

Immunity (most read) - Thu, 2013-10-31 02:00
Samira Tamoutounour, Martin Guilliams, Frédéric Montanana Sanchis, Hong Liu, Dorothea Terhorst, Camille Malosse, Emeline Pollet, Laurence Ardouin, Hervé Luche, Cindy Sanchez, Marc Dalod, Bernard Malissen, Sandrine Henri. In the skin, the lack of markers permitting the unambiguous identification of macrophages and of conventional and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) complicates understanding of their contribu....

Stable Pausing by RNA Polymerase II Provides an Opportunity to Target and Integrate Regulatory Signals

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-10-31 02:00
Telmo Henriques, Daniel A. Gilchrist, Sergei Nechaev, Michael Bern, Ginger W. Muse, Adam Burkholder, David C. Fargo, Karen Adelman. Metazoan gene expression is often regulated after the recruitment of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to promoters, through the controlled release of promoter-proximally paused Pol II into productive RN....

Targeting Mitochondrial DNA with a Platinum-Based Anticancer Agent

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Thu, 2013-10-31 02:00
Simon P. Wisnovsky, Justin J. Wilson, Robert J. Radford, Mark P. Pereira, Maria R. Chan, Rebecca R. Laposa, Stephen J. Lippard, Shana O. Kelley. An analog of the anticancer drug cisplatin (mtPt) was delivered to mitochondria of human cells using a peptide specifically targeting this organelle. mtPt induces apoptosis without damaging nuclea....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

Identification of EZH2 and EZH1 Small Molecule Inhibitors with Selective Impact on Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Cell Growth

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Thu, 2013-10-31 02:00
Shivani Garapaty-Rao, Christopher Nasveschuk, Alexandre Gagnon, Eric Y. Chan, Peter Sandy, Jennifer Busby, Srividya Balasubramanian, Robert Campbell, Feng Zhao, Louise Bergeron, James E. Audia, Brian K. Albrecht, Jean-Christophe Harmange, Richard Cummings, Patrick Trojer. The histone methyltransferase enhancer of Zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is a candidate oncogene due to its prevalent overexpression in malignant diseases, including late stage prostate and breast cancers....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

Next-Generation NAMPT Inhibitors Identified by Sequential High-Throughput Phenotypic Chemical and Functional Genomic Screens

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Thu, 2013-10-31 02:00
Christina J. Matheny, Michael C. Wei, Michael C. Bassik, Alicia J. Donnelly, Martin Kampmann, Masayuki Iwasaki, Obdulio Piloto, David E. Solow-Cordero, Donna M. Bouley, Rachel Rau, Patrick Brown, Michael T. McManus, Jonathan S. Weissman, Michael L. Cleary. Phenotypic high-throughput chemical screens allow for discovery of small molecules that modulate complex phenotypes and provide lead compounds for novel therapies; however, identification of the m....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

Cyanobacterial Polyketide Synthase Docking Domains: A Tool for Engineering Natural Product Biosynthesis

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Thu, 2013-10-31 02:00
Jonathan R. Whicher, Sarah S. Smaga, Douglas A. Hansen, William C. Brown, William H. Gerwick, David H. Sherman, Janet L. Smith. Modular type I polyketide synthases (PKSs) are versatile biosynthetic systems that initiate, successively elongate, and modify acyl chains. Intermediate transfer between modules is mediated via do....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

Luminal Mitosis Drives Epithelial Cell Dispersal within the Branching Ureteric Bud

Developmental Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-10-31 02:00
Adam Packard, Kylie Georgas, Odyssé Michos, Paul Riccio, Cristina Cebrian, Alexander N. Combes, Adler Ju, Anna Ferrer-Vaquer, Anna-Katerina Hadjantonakis, Hui Zong, Melissa H. Little, Frank Costantini. The ureteric bud is an epithelial tube that undergoes branching morphogenesis to form the renal collecting system. Although development of a normal kidney depends on proper ureteric bud morphogene....
Categories: Biology, Journals

EpCAM Controls Actomyosin Contractility and Cell Adhesion by Direct Inhibition of PKC

Developmental Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-10-31 02:00
Nadim Maghzal, Hulya A. Kayali, Nazanin Rohani, Andrey V. Kajava, François Fagotto. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a cell-surface protein highly expressed in embryonic tissues and in malignant carcinomas. We report that EpCAM acts as a potent inhibitor of novel prot....
Categories: Biology, Journals

External Mechanical Cues Trigger the Establishment of the Anterior-Posterior Axis in Early Mouse Embryos

Developmental Cell (most read) - Mon, 2013-10-28 02:00
Ryuji Hiramatsu, Toshiki Matsuoka, Chiharu Kimura-Yoshida, Sung-Woong Han, Kyoko Mochida, Taiji Adachi, Shuichi Takayama, Isao Matsuo. Mouse anterior-posterior axis polarization is preceded by formation of the distal visceral endoderm (DVE) by unknown mechanisms. Here, we show by in vitro culturing of embryos immediately after im....
Categories: Biology, Journals

Retraction Notice to: Dystroglycan and Perlecan Provide a Basal Cue Required for Epithelial Polarity during Energetic Stress

Developmental Cell (most read) - Mon, 2013-10-28 02:00
Vincent Mirouse, Christina P. Christoforou, Cornelia Fritsch, Daniel St Johnston, Robert P. Ray.
Categories: Biology, Journals

Translation Repressors, an RNA Helicase, and Developmental Cues Control RNP Phase Transitions during Early Development

Developmental Cell (most read) - Mon, 2013-10-28 02:00
Arnaud Hubstenberger, Scott L. Noble, Cristiana Cameron, Thomas C. Evans. Like membranous organelles, large-scale coassembly of macromolecules can organize functions in cells. Ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) can form liquid or solid aggregates, but control and consequences of....
Categories: Biology, Journals

Cilia Grow by Taking a Bite out of the Cell

Developmental Cell (most read) - Mon, 2013-10-28 02:00
Nathan W. Pierce, Maxence V. Nachury. Autophagy and primary cilium assembly have long been known to be induced by the same conditions in cultured cells. Two recent studies in Nature—Tang et al. (2013) and Pampliega et al. (2013....
Categories: Biology, Journals