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Loss of dE2F Compromises Mitochondrial Function

Developmental Cell (most read) - Mon, 2013-11-25 02:00
Aaron M. Ambrus, Abul B.M.M.K. Islam, Katherine B. Holmes, Nam Sung Moon, Nuria Lopez-Bigas, Elizaveta V. Benevolenskaya, Maxim V. Frolov. E2F/DP transcription factors regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis. Here, we investigated the mechanism of the resistance of Drosophila dDP mutants to irradiation-induced apoptosis. Con....
Categories: Biology, Journals

A Twoferase for Lipid Transfer at ER-Golgi Contact Sites

Developmental Cell (most read) - Mon, 2013-11-25 02:00
Tim P. Levine. Reporting in Cell, Mesmin et al. (2013) show how a single molecule of oxysterol binding protein, which has a lipid binding domain that solubilizes both sterol and PI4P, might integrate its ....
Categories: Biology, Journals

Endogenous Nitrated Nucleotide Is a Key Mediator of Autophagy and Innate Defense against Bacteria

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-21 02:00
Chiaki Ito, Yohei Saito, Takashi Nozawa, Shigemoto Fujii, Tomohiro Sawa, Hirofumi Inoue, Tetsuro Matsunaga, Shahzada Khan, Soichiro Akashi, Ryota Hashimoto, Chihiro Aikawa, Eriko Takahashi, Hiroshi Sagara, Masaaki Komatsu, Keiji Tanaka, Takaaki Akaike, Ichiro Nakagawa, Hirokazu Arimoto. Autophagy is a cellular self-catabolic process wherein organelles, macromolecules, and invading microbes are sequestered in autophagosomes that fuse with lysosomes. In this study, we uncover the r....

Deacetylase-Independent Function of HDAC3 in Transcription and Metabolism Requires Nuclear Receptor Corepressor

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-21 02:00
Zheng Sun, Dan Feng, Bin Fang, Shannon E. Mullican, Seo-Hee You, Hee-Woong Lim, Logan J. Everett, Christopher S. Nabel, Yun Li, Vignesh Selvakumaran, Kyoung-Jae Won, Mitchell A. Lazar. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are believed to regulate gene transcription by catalyzing deacetylation reactions. HDAC3 depletion in mouse liver upregulates lipogenic genes and results in severe hep....

Proofreading of Noncognate Acyl Adenylates by an Acyl-Coenzyme A Ligase

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-21 02:00
Miglena Manandhar, John E. Cronan. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases remove (proofread) incorrect substrates and thereby prevent errors in protein synthesis. We report enzyme-catalyzed pretransfer editing by pimeloyl-coenzyme A (CoA) liga....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

Core Assembly Mechanism of Quinocarcin/SF-1739: Bimodular Complex Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases for Sequential Mannich-type Reactions

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-21 02:00
Tomoshige Hiratsuka, Kento Koketsu, Atsushi Minami, Shunsuke Kaneko, Chiaki Yamazaki, Kenji Watanabe, Hiroki Oguri, Hideaki Oikawa. Quinocarcin and SF-1739, potent antitumor antibiotics, share a common tetracyclic tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ)-pyrrolidine core scaffold. Herein, we describe the identification of their biosynthe....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

The Capsids of HIV-1 and HIV-2 Determine Immune Detection of the Viral cDNA by the Innate Sensor cGAS in Dendritic Cells

Immunity (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-21 02:00
Xavier Lahaye, Takeshi Satoh, Matteo Gentili, Silvia Cerboni, Cécile Conrad, Ilse Hurbain, Ahmed El Marjou, Christine Lacabaratz, Jean-Daniel Lelièvre, Nicolas Manel. HIV-2 is less pathogenic for humans than HIV-1 and might provide partial cross-protection from HIV-1-induced pathology. Although both viruses replicate in the T cells of infected patients, only HI....

Enhanced Telomere Rejuvenation in Pluripotent Cells Reprogrammed via Nuclear Transfer Relative to Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

Stem Cell: most read - Thu, 2013-11-21 02:00
Rongrong Le, Zhaohui Kou, Yonghua Jiang, Ming Li, Bo Huang, Wenqiang Liu, Hui Li, Xiaochen Kou, Wanzhong He, Karl Lenhard Rudolph, Zhenyu Ju, Shaorong Gao. Although somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and induction of pluripotency (to form iPSCs) are both recognized reprogramming methods, there has been relatively little comparative analysis of the ....
Categories: Biology, Journals, Stem Cells

Contractile Forces Sustain and Polarize Hematopoiesis from Stem and Progenitor Cells

Stem Cell: most read - Thu, 2013-11-21 02:00
Jae-Won Shin, Amnon Buxboim, Kyle R. Spinler, Joe Swift, David A. Christian, Christopher A. Hunter, Catherine Léon, Christian Gachet, P.C. Dave P. Dingal, Irena L. Ivanovska, Florian Rehfeldt, Joel Anne Chasis, Dennis E. Discher. Self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells depend on asymmetric division and polarized motility processes that in other cell types are modulated by nonmuscle myosin-II (MII) forces and matrix ....
Categories: Biology, Journals, Stem Cells

Fundamental Differences in Dedifferentiation and Stem Cell Recruitment during Skeletal Muscle Regeneration in Two Salamander Species

Stem Cell: most read - Thu, 2013-11-21 02:00
Tatiana Sandoval-Guzmán, Heng Wang, Shahryar Khattak, Maritta Schuez, Kathleen Roensch, Eugeniu Nacu, Akira Tazaki, Alberto Joven, Elly M. Tanaka, András Simon. Salamanders regenerate appendages via a progenitor pool called the blastema. The cellular mechanisms underlying regeneration of muscle have been much debated but have remained unclear. Here we app....
Categories: Biology, Journals, Stem Cells

Clinical Grade iPS Cells: Need for Versatile Small Molecules and Optimal Cell Sources

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-21 02:00
Yan-Ling Wu, Ganesh N. Pandian, Yan-Ping Ding, Wen Zhang, Yoshimasa Tanaka, Hiroshi Sugiyama. Adult mammals possess limited ability to regenerate their lost tissues or organs. The epoch-making strategy of inducing pluripotency in somatic cells incorporates multiple applications in regenera....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

Glycotherapy: New Advances Inspire a Reemergence of Glycans in Medicine

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-21 02:00
Jason E. Hudak, Carolyn R. Bertozzi. The beginning of the 20th century marked the dawn of modern medicine with glycan-based therapies at the forefront. However, glycans quickly became overshadowed as DNA- and protein-focus....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

NAD as a Genotype-Specific Drug Target

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-21 02:00
Szu-Chieh Mei, Charles Brenner. Using high-throughput chemical and genetic screening, Matheny and colleagues (in this issue of Chemistry & Biology) identified STF-118804, an inhibitor of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltra....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

Two Birds with One Stone: Dual p110δ and p110γ Inhibition

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-21 02:00
Klaus Okkenhaug. In this issue of Chemistry & Biology, Winkler and colleagues describe the discovery and preclinical development of IPI-145, a new inhibitor of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) isofo....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

Replication Stress and Chromatin Context Link ATM Activation to a Role in DNA Replication

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-21 02:00
Monica M. Olcina, Iosifina P. Foskolou, Selvakumar Anbalagan, Joana M. Senra, Isabel M. Pires, Yanyan Jiang, Anderson J. Ryan, Ester M. Hammond. ATM-mediated signaling in response to DNA damage is a barrier to tumorigenesis. Here we asked whether replication stress could also contribute to ATM signaling. We demonstrate that, in the absence....

Dealing with Pervasive Transcription

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-21 02:00
Torben Heick Jensen, Alain Jacquier, Domenico Libri. Eukaryotic genomes are pervasively transcribed. However, it is unclear how many newly found RNAs have functions and how many are byproducts of functional, or spurious, transcription events. Cells ....

Molecular Insights into microRNA-Mediated Translational Repression in Plants

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-21 02:00
Hiro-oki Iwakawa, Yukihide Tomari. microRNAs (miRNAs) bind Argonaute proteins in order to form RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) that can silence the expression of complementary mRNAs. Plant miRNAs can mediate the cleavage of....

Tsix RNA and the Germline Factor, PRDM14, Link X Reactivation and Stem Cell Reprogramming

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-21 02:00
Bernhard Payer, Michael Rosenberg, Masashi Yamaji, Yukihiro Yabuta, Michiyo Koyanagi-Aoi, Katsuhiko Hayashi, Shinya Yamanaka, Mitinori Saitou, Jeannie T. Lee. Transitions between pluripotent and differentiated states are marked by dramatic epigenetic changes. Cellular differentiation is tightly linked to X chromosome inactivation (XCI), whereas reprogra....

PPL2 Translesion Polymerase Is Essential for the Completion of Chromosomal DNA Replication in the African Trypanosome

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-21 02:00
Sean G. Rudd, Lucy Glover, Stanislaw K. Jozwiakowski, David Horn, Aidan J. Doherty. Faithful copying of the genome is essential for life. In eukaryotes, a single archaeo-eukaryotic primase (AEP), DNA primase, is required for the initiation and progression of DNA replication. Here....

Spindle Formation in the Mouse Embryo Requires Plk4 in the Absence of Centrioles

Developmental Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-21 02:00
Paula A. Coelho, Leah Bury, Bedra Sharif, Maria G. Riparbelli, Jingyan Fu, Giuliano Callaini, David M. Glover, Magdalena Zernicka-Goetz. During the first five rounds of cell division in the mouse embryo, spindles assemble in the absence of centrioles. Spindle formation initiates around chromosomes, but the microtubule nucleating pr....
Categories: Biology, Journals