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The Inhibitory Receptor BTLA Controls γδ T Cell Homeostasis and Inflammatory Responses

Immunity (most read) - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Vasileios Bekiaris, John R. Šedý, Matthew G. Macauley, Antje Rhode-Kurnow, Carl F. Ware. γδ T cells rapidly secrete inflammatory cytokines at barrier sites that aid in protection from pathogens, but mechanisms limiting inflammatory damage remain unclear. We found that retinoid-related....

Reciprocal Regulation of HIF-1α and LincRNA-p21 Modulates the Warburg Effect

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Fan Yang, Huafeng Zhang, Yide Mei, Mian Wu. Hypoxia has long been linked to the Warburg effect, yet the underlying mechanism remains largely unclear. It is also not known if lncRNAs are involved in the contribution of hypoxia to the Warburg....

The Plasma Membrane Flattens Out to Fuel Cell-Surface Growth during Drosophila Cellularization

Developmental Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Lauren Figard, Heng Xu, Hernan G. Garcia, Ido Golding, Anna Marie Sokac. Cell-shape change demands cell-surface growth, but how growth is fueled and choreographed is still debated. Here we use cellularization, the first complete cytokinetic event in Drosophila e....
Categories: Biology, Journals

Intracellular Complement Activation Sustains T Cell Homeostasis and Mediates Effector Differentiation

Immunity (most read) - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
M. Kathryn Liszewski, Martin Kolev, Gaelle Le Friec, Marilyn Leung, Paula G. Bertram, Antonella F. Fara, Marta Subias, Matthew C. Pickering, Christian Drouet, Seppo Meri, T. Petteri Arstila, Pirkka T. Pekkarinen, Margaret Ma, Andrew Cope, Thomas Reinheckel, Santiago Rodriguez de Cordoba, Behdad Afzali, John P. Atkinson, Claudia Kemper. Complement is viewed as a critical serum-operative component of innate immunity, with processing of its key component, C3, into activation fragments C3a and C3b confined to the extracellular space....

FoxP3 Acts as a Cotranscription Factor with STAT3 in Tumor-Induced Regulatory T Cells

Immunity (most read) - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Dewan Md Sakib Hossain, Abir K. Panda, Argha Manna, Suchismita Mohanty, Pushpak Bhattacharjee, Sankar Bhattacharyya, Taniya Saha, Sreeparna Chakraborty, Rajiv K. Kar, Tanya Das, Subhrangsu Chatterjee, Gaurisankar Sa. FoxP3, a lineage-specification factor, executes its multiple activities mostly through transcriptional regulation of target genes. We identified an interleukin-10 (IL-10)-producing FoxP3+

T Cell Exit from Quiescence and Differentiation into Th2 Cells Depend on Raptor-mTORC1-Mediated Metabolic Reprogramming

Immunity (most read) - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Kai Yang, Sharad Shrestha, Hu Zeng, Peer W.F. Karmaus, Geoffrey Neale, Peter Vogel, David A. Guertin, Richard F. Lamb, Hongbo Chi. Naive T cells respond to antigen stimulation by exiting from quiescence and initiating clonal expansion and functional differentiation, but the control mechanism is elusive. Here we describe that ....

Functional Repair of CFTR by CRISPR/Cas9 in Intestinal Stem Cell Organoids of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

Stem Cell: most read - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Gerald Schwank, Bon-Kyoung Koo, Valentina Sasselli, Johanna F. Dekkers, Inha Heo, Turan Demircan, Nobuo Sasaki, Sander Boymans, Edwin Cuppen, Cornelis K. van der Ent, Edward E.S. Nieuwenhuis, Jeffrey M. Beekman, Hans Clevers. Single murine and human intestinal stem cells can be expanded in culture over long time periods as genetically and phenotypically stable epithelial organoids. Increased cAMP levels induce rapid sw....
Categories: Biology, Journals, Stem Cells

Correction of a Genetic Disease in Mouse via Use of CRISPR-Cas9

Stem Cell: most read - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Yuxuan Wu, Dan Liang, Yinghua Wang, Meizhu Bai, Wei Tang, Shiming Bao, Zhiqiang Yan, Dangsheng Li, Jinsong Li. The CRISPR-Cas9 system has been employed to generate mutant alleles in a range of different organisms. However, so far there have not been reports of use of this system for efficient correction of....
Categories: Biology, Journals, Stem Cells

Induction of a Human Pluripotent State with Distinct Regulatory Circuitry that Resembles Preimplantation Epiblast

Stem Cell: most read - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Yun-Shen Chan, Jonathan Göke, Jia-Hui Ng, Xinyi Lu, Kevin Andrew Uy Gonzales, Cheng-Peow Tan, Wei-Quan Tng, Zhong-Zhi Hong, Yee-Siang Lim, Huck-Hui Ng. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst. Despite sharing the common property of pluripotency, hESCs are notably distinct from epiblast cells of th....
Categories: Biology, Journals, Stem Cells

Human iPSC-Based Modeling of Late-Onset Disease via Progerin-Induced Aging

Stem Cell: most read - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Justine D. Miller, Yosif M. Ganat, Sarah Kishinevsky, Robert L. Bowman, Becky Liu, Edmund Y. Tu, Pankaj K. Mandal, Elsa Vera, Jae-won Shim, Sonja Kriks, Tony Taldone, Noemi Fusaki, Mark J. Tomishima, Dimitri Krainc, Teresa A. Milner, Derrick J. Rossi, Lorenz Studer. Reprogramming somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) resets their identity back to an embryonic age and, thus, presents a significant hurdle for modeling late-onset disorders. In ....
Categories: Biology, Journals, Stem Cells

Distinct Functions for Wnt/β-Catenin in Hair Follicle Stem Cell Proliferation and Survival and Interfollicular Epidermal Homeostasis

Stem Cell: most read - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Yeon Sook Choi, Yuhang Zhang, Mingang Xu, Yongguang Yang, Mayumi Ito, Tien Peng, Zheng Cui, Andras Nagy, Anna-Katerina Hadjantonakis, Richard A. Lang, George Cotsarelis, Thomas Andl, Edward E. Morrisey, Sarah E. Millar. Wnt/β-catenin signaling is a central regulator of adult stem cells. Variable sensitivity of Wnt reporter transgenes, β-catenin’s dual roles in adhesion and signaling, and hair follicle degradation....
Categories: Biology, Journals, Stem Cells

Posttranscriptional RNA Modifications: Playing Metabolic Games in a Cell’s Chemical Legoland

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Mark Helm, Juan D. Alfonzo. Nature combines existing biochemical building blocks, at times with subtlety of purpose. RNA modifications are a prime example of this, where standard RNA nucleosides are decorated with chemical g....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

PKM2 Regulates Chromosome Segregation and Mitosis Progression of Tumor Cells

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Yuhui Jiang, Xinjian Li, Weiwei Yang, David H. Hawke, Yanhua Zheng, Yan Xia, Kenneth Aldape, Chongyang Wei, Fang Guo, Yan Chen, Zhimin Lu. Tumor-specific pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is instrumental in both aerobic glycolysis and gene transcription. PKM2 regulates G1-S phase transition by controlling cyclin D1 expression. However, it is....

DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Pathway Choice Is Directed by Distinct MRE11 Nuclease Activities

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Atsushi Shibata, Davide Moiani, Andrew S. Arvai, Jefferson Perry, Shane M. Harding, Marie-Michelle Genois, Ranjan Maity, Sari van Rossum-Fikkert, Aryandi Kertokalio, Filippo Romoli, Amani Ismail, Ermal Ismalaj, Elena Petricci, Matthew J. Neale, Robert G. Bristow, Jean-Yves Masson, Claire Wyman, Penny A. Jeggo, John A. Tainer. MRE11 within the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex acts in DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR), detection, and signaling; yet, how its endo- and exonuclease activities regulate DSBR by nonhomologou....

ELABELA: A Hormone Essential for Heart Development Signals via the Apelin Receptor

Developmental Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Serene C. Chng, Lena Ho, Jing Tian, Bruno Reversade. We report here the discovery and characterization of a gene, ELABELA (ELA), encoding a conserved hormone of 32 amino acids. Present in human embryonic stem cells, ELA is expressed at....
Categories: Biology, Journals

Medical genetic inspirations for anticancer drug repurposing

Trends in Pharmacological Sciences - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Zhong-Yi Wang, Yuan Quan, Hong-Yu Zhang.
Categories: Biology, Healthcare, Journals

Arabidopsis TOL Proteins Act as Gatekeepers for Vacuolar Sorting of PIN2 Plasma Membrane Protein

Current Biology - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Barbara Korbei, Jeanette Moulinier-Anzola, Lucinda De-Araujo, Doris Lucyshyn, Katarzyna Retzer, Muhammad A. Khan, Christian Luschnig. Controlling variations in plasma membrane (PM) protein abundance is of utmost importance for development in higher plants. For modulating PM protein activity, endocytosed proteins can be either cy....
Categories: Biology, Journals

A Differential Cargo-Loading Model of Ciliary Length Regulation by IFT

Current Biology - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Kathryne N. Wren, Julie M. Craft, Douglas Tritschler, Alexandria Schauer, Deep K. Patel, Elizabeth F. Smith, Mary E. Porter, Peter Kner, Karl F. Lechtreck. BackgroundDuring the assembly and maintenance of cilia, precursor proteins need to be transported from the cell body into the organelle. Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is assumed to be the predomi....
Categories: Biology, Journals

Olfactory Preference for Egg Laying on Citrus Substrates in Drosophila

Current Biology - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Hany K.M. Dweck, Shimaa A.M. Ebrahim, Sophie Kromann, Deni Bown, Ylva Hillbur, Silke Sachse, Bill S. Hansson, Marcus C. Stensmyr. BackgroundEgg-laying animals, such as insects, ensure the survival of their offspring by depositing their eggs in favorable environments. To identify suitable oviposition sites, insects, such as t....
Categories: Biology, Journals

The Unfolded Protein Response in a Pair of Sensory Neurons Promotes Entry of C. elegans into Dauer Diapause

Current Biology - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Warakorn Kulalert, Dennis H. Kim. In response to unfavorable environmental conditions such as starvation, crowding, and elevated temperature, Caenorhabditis elegans larvae enter an alternative developmental stage known as d....
Categories: Biology, Journals