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Regulation of Gene Expression by Macrolide-Induced Ribosomal Frameshifting

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-14 02:00
Pulkit Gupta, Krishna Kannan, Alexander S. Mankin, Nora Vázquez-Laslop. The expression of many genes is controlled by upstream ORFs (uORFs). Typically, the progression of the ribosome through a regulatory uORF, which depends on the physiological state of the cell, inf....

A Pair of Centromeric Proteins Mediates Reproductive Isolation in Drosophila Species

Developmental Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-14 02:00
Andreas W. Thomae, Georg O.M. Schade, Jan Padeken, Marc Borath, Irene Vetter, Elisabeth Kremmer, Patrick Heun, Axel Imhof. Speciation involves the reproductive isolation of natural populations due to the sterility or lethality of their hybrids. However, the molecular basis of hybrid lethality and the evolutionary driv....
Categories: Biology, Journals

miR-219 Regulates Neural Precursor Differentiation by Direct Inhibition of Apical Par Polarity Proteins

Developmental Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-14 02:00
Laura I. Hudish, Alex J. Blasky, Bruce Appel. Asymmetric self-renewing division of neural precursors is essential for brain development. Partitioning-defective (Par) proteins promote self-renewal, and their asymmetric distribution provides a ....
Categories: Biology, Journals

The Purkinje Neuron Acts as a Central Regulator of Spatially and Functionally Distinct Cerebellar Precursors

Developmental Cell (most read) - Mon, 2013-11-11 02:00
Jonathan T. Fleming, Wenjuan He, Chuanming Hao, Tatiana Ketova, Fong C. Pan, Christopher C.V. Wright, Ying Litingtung, Chin Chiang. The prospective white matter (PWM) in the nascent cerebellum contains a transient germinal compartment that produces all postnatally born GABAergic inhibitory interneurons and astrocytes. However,....
Categories: Biology, Journals

Cytoplasmic Streaming Velocity as a Plant Size Determinant

Developmental Cell (most read) - Mon, 2013-11-11 02:00
Motoki Tominaga, Atsushi Kimura, Etsuo Yokota, Takeshi Haraguchi, Teruo Shimmen, Keiichi Yamamoto, Akihiko Nakano, Kohji Ito. Cytoplasmic streaming is active transport widely occurring in plant cells ranging from algae to angiosperms. Although it has been revealed that cytoplasmic streaming is generated by organelle-asso....
Categories: Biology, Journals

A Common Set of DNA Regulatory Elements Shapes Drosophila Appendages

Developmental Cell (most read) - Mon, 2013-11-11 02:00
Daniel J. McKay, Jason D. Lieb. Animals have body parts made of similar cell types located at different axial positions, such as limbs. The identity and distinct morphology of each structure is often specified by the activity of....
Categories: Biology, Journals

Tip Cells Act as Dynamic Cellular Anchors in the Morphogenesis of Looped Renal Tubules in Drosophila

Developmental Cell (most read) - Mon, 2013-11-11 02:00
Helen Weavers, Helen Skaer. Tissue morphogenesis involves both the sculpting of tissue shape and the positioning of tissues relative to one another in the body. Using the renal tubules of Drosophila, we show that a sp....
Categories: Biology, Journals

SAHA Enhances Proteostasis of Epilepsy-Associated α1(A322D)β2γ2 GABAA Receptors

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-07 02:00
Xiao-Jing Di, Dong-Yun Han, Ya-Juan Wang, Mark R. Chance, Ting-Wei Mu. GABAA receptors are the primary inhibitory ion channels in the mammalian central nervous system. The A322D mutation in the α1 subunit of GABAA receptors is known to result in....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

Tracking Brain Palmitoylation Change: Predominance of Glial Change in a Mouse Model of Huntington’s Disease

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-07 02:00
Junmei Wan, Jeffrey N. Savas, Amy F. Roth, Shaun S. Sanders, Roshni R. Singaraja, Michael R. Hayden, John R. Yates, Nicholas G. Davis. Protein palmitoylation, a reversible lipid modification of proteins, is widely used in the nervous system, with dysregulated palmitoylation being implicated in a variety of neurological disorders.....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

Crystal Structures of Sirt3 Complexes with 4′-Bromo-Resveratrol Reveal Binding Sites and Inhibition Mechanism

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-07 02:00
Giang Thi Tuyet Nguyen, Melanie Gertz, Clemens Steegborn. Sirtuins are protein deacetylases regulating aging processes and various physiological functions. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in red wine, activates human Sirt1 and inhibits Sirt3, and it can ....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

R Loops Are Linked to Histone H3 S10 Phosphorylation and Chromatin Condensation

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-07 02:00
Maikel Castellano-Pozo, José M. Santos-Pereira, Ana G. Rondón, Sonia Barroso, Eloisa Andújar, Mónica Pérez-Alegre, Tatiana García-Muse, Andrés Aguilera. R loops are transcription byproducts that constitute a threat to genome integrity. Here we show that R loops are tightly linked to histone H3 S10 phosphorylation (H3S10P), a mark of chromatin cond....

Self-Assembly of VPS41 Promotes Sorting Required for Biogenesis of the Regulated Secretory Pathway

Developmental Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-07 02:00
Cédric S. Asensio, Daniel W. Sirkis, James W. Maas, Kiyoshi Egami, Tsz-Leung To, Frances M. Brodsky, Xiaokun Shu, Yifan Cheng, Robert H. Edwards. The regulated release of polypeptides has a central role in physiology, behavior, and development, but the mechanisms responsible for production of the large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) capable of....
Categories: Biology, Journals

Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 Sustains CD8+ T Cell Expansion and Effector Differentiation

Immunity (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-07 02:00
Shuyu Yao, Bruno Fernando Buzo, Duy Pham, Li Jiang, Elizabeth J. Taparowsky, Mark H. Kaplan, Jie Sun. Upon infection, CD8+ T cells undergo a stepwise process of early activation, expansion, and differentiation into effector cells. How these phases are transcriptionally regulated is inco....

Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Signaling in Keratinocytes Triggers Interleukin-24-Dependent Psoriasis-like Skin Inflammation in Mice

Immunity (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-07 02:00
Snehlata Kumari, Marion C. Bonnet, Maria H. Ulvmar, Kerstin Wolk, Niki Karagianni, Ellen Witte, Claudia Uthoff-Hachenberg, Jean-Christophe Renauld, George Kollias, Rune Toftgard, Robert Sabat, Manolis Pasparakis, Ingo Haase. Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease with a prevalence of about 2% in the Caucasian population. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of psoria....

Genome-wide Consequences of Deleting Any Single Gene

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-07 02:00
Xinchen Teng, Margaret Dayhoff-Brannigan, Wen-Chih Cheng, Catherine E. Gilbert, Cierra N. Sing, Nicola L. Diny, Sarah J. Wheelan, Maitreya J. Dunham, Jef D. Boeke, Fernando J. Pineda, J. Marie Hardwick. Loss or duplication of chromosome segments can lead to further genomic changes associated with cancer. However, it is not known whether only a select subset of genes is responsible for driving fur....

The Intertwined Roles of Transcription and Repair Proteins

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-07 02:00
Yick W. Fong, Claudia Cattoglio, Robert Tjian. Transcription is apparently risky business. Its intrinsic mutagenic potential must be kept in check by networks of DNA repair factors that monitor the transcription process to repair DNA lesions t....

Acetylation of RNA Polymerase II Regulates Growth-Factor-Induced Gene Transcription in Mammalian Cells

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-11-07 02:00
Sebastian Schröder, Eva Herker, Friederike Itzen, Daniel He, Sean Thomas, Daniel A. Gilchrist, Katrin Kaehlcke, Sungyoo Cho, Katherine S. Pollard, John A. Capra, Martina Schnölzer, Philip A. Cole, Matthias Geyer, Benoit G. Bruneau, Karen Adelman, Melanie Ott. Lysine acetylation regulates transcription by targeting histones and nonhistone proteins. Here we report that the central regulator of transcription, RNA polymerase II, is subject to acetylation i....

Transient Activation of Autophagy via Sox2-Mediated Suppression of mTOR Is an Important Early Step in Reprogramming to Pluripotency

Stem Cell: most read - Thu, 2013-11-07 02:00
Shuo Wang, Pengyan Xia, Buqing Ye, Guanling Huang, Jing Liu, Zusen Fan. Autophagy is an essential cellular mechanism that degrades cytoplasmic proteins and organelles to recycle their components. Here we show that autophagy is required for reprogramming of somatic cel....
Categories: Biology, Journals, Stem Cells

Transient Maternal IL-6 Mediates Long-Lasting Changes in Neural Stem Cell Pools by Deregulating an Endogenous Self-Renewal Pathway

Stem Cell: most read - Thu, 2013-11-07 02:00
Denis Gallagher, Andreea A. Norman, Cameron L. Woodard, Guang Yang, Andrée Gauthier-Fisher, Masashi Fujitani, John P. Vessey, Gonzalo I. Cancino, Nadia Sachewsky, Knut Woltjen, Michael P. Fatt, Cindi M. Morshead, David R. Kaplan, Freda D. Miller. The mechanisms that regulate the establishment of adult stem cell pools during normal and perturbed mammalian development are still largely unknown. Here, we asked whether a maternal cytokine surg....
Categories: Biology, Journals, Stem Cells

Deciphering Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Their Niches: A Critical Appraisal of Genetic Models, Lineage Tracing, and Imaging Strategies

Stem Cell: most read - Thu, 2013-11-07 02:00
Chacko Joseph, Julie M. Quach, Carl R. Walkley, Steven W. Lane, Cristina Lo Celso, Louise E. Purton. In recent years, technical developments in mouse genetics and imaging equipment have substantially advanced our understanding of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their niche. The availability o....
Categories: Biology, Journals, Stem Cells