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T Cell Exit from Quiescence and Differentiation into Th2 Cells Depend on Raptor-mTORC1-Mediated Metabolic Reprogramming

Immunity (most read) - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Kai Yang, Sharad Shrestha, Hu Zeng, Peer W.F. Karmaus, Geoffrey Neale, Peter Vogel, David A. Guertin, Richard F. Lamb, Hongbo Chi. Naive T cells respond to antigen stimulation by exiting from quiescence and initiating clonal expansion and functional differentiation, but the control mechanism is elusive. Here we describe that ....

Functional Repair of CFTR by CRISPR/Cas9 in Intestinal Stem Cell Organoids of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

Stem Cell: most read - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Gerald Schwank, Bon-Kyoung Koo, Valentina Sasselli, Johanna F. Dekkers, Inha Heo, Turan Demircan, Nobuo Sasaki, Sander Boymans, Edwin Cuppen, Cornelis K. van der Ent, Edward E.S. Nieuwenhuis, Jeffrey M. Beekman, Hans Clevers. Single murine and human intestinal stem cells can be expanded in culture over long time periods as genetically and phenotypically stable epithelial organoids. Increased cAMP levels induce rapid sw....
Categories: Biology, Journals, Stem Cells

Correction of a Genetic Disease in Mouse via Use of CRISPR-Cas9

Stem Cell: most read - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Yuxuan Wu, Dan Liang, Yinghua Wang, Meizhu Bai, Wei Tang, Shiming Bao, Zhiqiang Yan, Dangsheng Li, Jinsong Li. The CRISPR-Cas9 system has been employed to generate mutant alleles in a range of different organisms. However, so far there have not been reports of use of this system for efficient correction of....
Categories: Biology, Journals, Stem Cells

Induction of a Human Pluripotent State with Distinct Regulatory Circuitry that Resembles Preimplantation Epiblast

Stem Cell: most read - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Yun-Shen Chan, Jonathan Göke, Jia-Hui Ng, Xinyi Lu, Kevin Andrew Uy Gonzales, Cheng-Peow Tan, Wei-Quan Tng, Zhong-Zhi Hong, Yee-Siang Lim, Huck-Hui Ng. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst. Despite sharing the common property of pluripotency, hESCs are notably distinct from epiblast cells of th....
Categories: Biology, Journals, Stem Cells

Human iPSC-Based Modeling of Late-Onset Disease via Progerin-Induced Aging

Stem Cell: most read - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Justine D. Miller, Yosif M. Ganat, Sarah Kishinevsky, Robert L. Bowman, Becky Liu, Edmund Y. Tu, Pankaj K. Mandal, Elsa Vera, Jae-won Shim, Sonja Kriks, Tony Taldone, Noemi Fusaki, Mark J. Tomishima, Dimitri Krainc, Teresa A. Milner, Derrick J. Rossi, Lorenz Studer. Reprogramming somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) resets their identity back to an embryonic age and, thus, presents a significant hurdle for modeling late-onset disorders. In ....
Categories: Biology, Journals, Stem Cells

Distinct Functions for Wnt/β-Catenin in Hair Follicle Stem Cell Proliferation and Survival and Interfollicular Epidermal Homeostasis

Stem Cell: most read - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Yeon Sook Choi, Yuhang Zhang, Mingang Xu, Yongguang Yang, Mayumi Ito, Tien Peng, Zheng Cui, Andras Nagy, Anna-Katerina Hadjantonakis, Richard A. Lang, George Cotsarelis, Thomas Andl, Edward E. Morrisey, Sarah E. Millar. Wnt/β-catenin signaling is a central regulator of adult stem cells. Variable sensitivity of Wnt reporter transgenes, β-catenin’s dual roles in adhesion and signaling, and hair follicle degradation....
Categories: Biology, Journals, Stem Cells

Posttranscriptional RNA Modifications: Playing Metabolic Games in a Cell’s Chemical Legoland

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Mark Helm, Juan D. Alfonzo. Nature combines existing biochemical building blocks, at times with subtlety of purpose. RNA modifications are a prime example of this, where standard RNA nucleosides are decorated with chemical g....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

PKM2 Regulates Chromosome Segregation and Mitosis Progression of Tumor Cells

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Yuhui Jiang, Xinjian Li, Weiwei Yang, David H. Hawke, Yanhua Zheng, Yan Xia, Kenneth Aldape, Chongyang Wei, Fang Guo, Yan Chen, Zhimin Lu. Tumor-specific pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is instrumental in both aerobic glycolysis and gene transcription. PKM2 regulates G1-S phase transition by controlling cyclin D1 expression. However, it is....

DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Pathway Choice Is Directed by Distinct MRE11 Nuclease Activities

Molecular Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Atsushi Shibata, Davide Moiani, Andrew S. Arvai, Jefferson Perry, Shane M. Harding, Marie-Michelle Genois, Ranjan Maity, Sari van Rossum-Fikkert, Aryandi Kertokalio, Filippo Romoli, Amani Ismail, Ermal Ismalaj, Elena Petricci, Matthew J. Neale, Robert G. Bristow, Jean-Yves Masson, Claire Wyman, Penny A. Jeggo, John A. Tainer. MRE11 within the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex acts in DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR), detection, and signaling; yet, how its endo- and exonuclease activities regulate DSBR by nonhomologou....

ELABELA: A Hormone Essential for Heart Development Signals via the Apelin Receptor

Developmental Cell (most read) - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Serene C. Chng, Lena Ho, Jing Tian, Bruno Reversade. We report here the discovery and characterization of a gene, ELABELA (ELA), encoding a conserved hormone of 32 amino acids. Present in human embryonic stem cells, ELA is expressed at....
Categories: Biology, Journals

Medical genetic inspirations for anticancer drug repurposing

Trends in Pharmacological Sciences - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Zhong-Yi Wang, Yuan Quan, Hong-Yu Zhang.
Categories: Biology, Healthcare, Journals

Arabidopsis TOL Proteins Act as Gatekeepers for Vacuolar Sorting of PIN2 Plasma Membrane Protein

Current Biology - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Barbara Korbei, Jeanette Moulinier-Anzola, Lucinda De-Araujo, Doris Lucyshyn, Katarzyna Retzer, Muhammad A. Khan, Christian Luschnig. Controlling variations in plasma membrane (PM) protein abundance is of utmost importance for development in higher plants. For modulating PM protein activity, endocytosed proteins can be either cy....
Categories: Biology, Journals

A Differential Cargo-Loading Model of Ciliary Length Regulation by IFT

Current Biology - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Kathryne N. Wren, Julie M. Craft, Douglas Tritschler, Alexandria Schauer, Deep K. Patel, Elizabeth F. Smith, Mary E. Porter, Peter Kner, Karl F. Lechtreck. BackgroundDuring the assembly and maintenance of cilia, precursor proteins need to be transported from the cell body into the organelle. Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is assumed to be the predomi....
Categories: Biology, Journals

Olfactory Preference for Egg Laying on Citrus Substrates in Drosophila

Current Biology - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Hany K.M. Dweck, Shimaa A.M. Ebrahim, Sophie Kromann, Deni Bown, Ylva Hillbur, Silke Sachse, Bill S. Hansson, Marcus C. Stensmyr. BackgroundEgg-laying animals, such as insects, ensure the survival of their offspring by depositing their eggs in favorable environments. To identify suitable oviposition sites, insects, such as t....
Categories: Biology, Journals

The Unfolded Protein Response in a Pair of Sensory Neurons Promotes Entry of C. elegans into Dauer Diapause

Current Biology - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Warakorn Kulalert, Dennis H. Kim. In response to unfavorable environmental conditions such as starvation, crowding, and elevated temperature, Caenorhabditis elegans larvae enter an alternative developmental stage known as d....
Categories: Biology, Journals

Colponemids Represent Multiple Ancient Alveolate Lineages

Current Biology - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Jan Janouškovec, Denis V. Tikhonenkov, Kirill V. Mikhailov, Timur G. Simdyanov, Vladimir V. Aleoshin, Alexander P. Mylnikov, Patrick J. Keeling. The alveolates comprise three well-studied protist lineages of significant environmental, medical, and economical importance: apicomplexans (e.g., Plasmodium), dinoflagellates (e.g., Sym....
Categories: Biology, Journals

Rhythmic Sampling within and between Objects despite Sustained Attention at a Cued Location

Current Biology - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Ian C. Fiebelkorn, Yuri B. Saalmann, Sabine Kastner. The brain directs its limited processing resources through various selection mechanisms, broadly referred to as attention. The present study investigated the temporal dynamics of two such selectio....
Categories: Biology, Journals

Gradual Molecular Evolution of a Sex Determination Switch through Incomplete Penetrance of Femaleness

Current Biology - Thu, 2013-12-05 02:00
Martin Beye, Christine Seelmann, Tanja Gempe, Martin Hasselmann, Xavier Vekemans, M. Kim Fondrk, Robert E. Page. Some genes regulate phenotypes that are either present or absent. They are often important regulators of developmental switches and are involved in morphological evolution. We have little understa....
Categories: Biology, Journals

Exploring Intermolecular Interactions of a Substrate Binding Protein Using a Riboswitch-Based Sensor

Chemistry and Biology (most read) - Wed, 2013-11-27 02:00
Casey C. Fowler, Seiji Sugiman-Marangos, Murray S. Junop, Eric D. Brown, Yingfu Li. The study of biological transporters can be hampered by a dearth of methodology for tracking their activity within cells. Here, we present a means of monitoring the function of transport machinery....
Categories: Biology, Chemistry, Journals

Neonatal Fc Receptor Expression in Dendritic Cells Mediates Protective Immunity against Colorectal Cancer

Immunity (most read) - Wed, 2013-11-27 02:00
Kristi Baker, Timo Rath, Magdalena B. Flak, Janelle C. Arthur, Zhangguo Chen, Jonathan N. Glickman, Inti Zlobec, Eva Karamitopoulou, Matthew D. Stachler, Robert D. Odze, Wayne I. Lencer, Christian Jobin, Richard S. Blumberg. Cancers arising in mucosal tissues account for a disproportionately large fraction of malignancies. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and the neonatal Fc receptor for IgG (FcRn) have an important function in....