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All other primates live their lives according to a simple rule

Genetics - 10 hours 44 min ago
Hundreds of species of primate all form groups of the same five sizes, suggesting that the ecosystems in which they live strongly shape their lifestyles
Categories: Biology

All other primates live their lives according to a simple rule

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - 10 hours 44 min ago
Hundreds of species of primate all form groups of the same five sizes, suggesting that the ecosystems in which they live strongly shape their lifestyles
Categories: Science and society

Identification of a noncanonical function for ribose-5-phosphate isomerase A promotes colorectal cancer formation by stabilizing and activating β-catenin via a novel C-terminal domain

PLOS Biology (new articles) - 12 hours 45 min ago

by Yu-Ting Chou, Jeng-Kai Jiang, Muh-Hwa Yang, Jeng-Wei Lu, Hua-Kuo Lin, Horng-Dar Wang, Chiou-Hwa Yuh

Altered metabolism is one of the hallmarks of cancers. Deregulation of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase A (RPIA) in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is known to promote tumorigenesis in liver, lung, and breast tissues. Yet, the molecular mechanism of RPIA-mediated colorectal cancer (CRC) is unknown. Our study demonstrates a noncanonical function of RPIA in CRC. Data from the mRNAs of 80 patients’ CRC tissues and paired nontumor tissues and protein levels, as well as a CRC tissue array, indicate RPIA is significantly elevated in CRC. RPIA modulates cell proliferation and oncogenicity via activation of β-catenin in colon cancer cell lines. Unlike its role in PPP in which RPIA functions within the cytosol, RPIA enters the nucleus to form a complex with the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and β-catenin. This association protects β-catenin by preventing its phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and subsequent degradation. The C-terminus of RPIA (amino acid 290 to 311), a region distinct from its enzymatic domain, is necessary for RPIA-mediated tumorigenesis. Consistent with results in vitro, RPIA increases the expression of β-catenin and its target genes, and induces tumorigenesis in gut-specific, promotor-carrying RPIA transgenic (Tg) zebrafish. Together, we demonstrate a novel function of RPIA in CRC formation in which RPIA enters the nucleus and stabilizes β-catenin activity and suggests that RPIA might be a biomarker for targeted therapy and prognosis.
Categories: Biology, Journals

Anteroposterior axis patterning by early canonical Wnt signaling during hemichordate development

PLOS Biology (new articles) - 12 hours 45 min ago

by Sébastien Darras, Jens H. Fritzenwanker, Kevin R. Uhlinger, Ellyn Farrelly, Ariel M. Pani, Imogen A. Hurley, Rachael P. Norris, Michelle Osovitz, Mark Terasaki, Mike Wu, Jochanan Aronowicz, Marc Kirschner, John C. Gerhart, Christopher J. Lowe

The Wnt family of secreted proteins has been proposed to play a conserved role in early specification of the bilaterian anteroposterior (A/P) axis. This hypothesis is based predominantly on data from vertebrate embryogenesis as well as planarian regeneration and homeostasis, indicating that canonical Wnt (cWnt) signaling endows cells with positional information along the A/P axis. Outside of these phyla, there is strong support for a conserved role of cWnt signaling in the repression of anterior fates, but little comparative support for a conserved role in promotion of posterior fates. We further test the hypothesis by investigating the role of cWnt signaling during early patterning along the A/P axis of the hemichordate Saccoglossus kowalevskii. We have cloned and investigated the expression of the complete Wnt ligand and Frizzled receptor complement of S. kowalevskii during early development along with many secreted Wnt modifiers. Eleven of the 13 Wnt ligands are ectodermally expressed in overlapping domains, predominantly in the posterior, and Wnt antagonists are localized predominantly to the anterior ectoderm in a pattern reminiscent of their distribution in vertebrate embryos. Overexpression and knockdown experiments, in combination with embryological manipulations, establish the importance of cWnt signaling for repression of anterior fates and activation of mid-axial ectodermal fates during the early development of S. kowalevskii. However, surprisingly, terminal posterior fates, defined by posterior Hox genes, are unresponsive to manipulation of cWnt levels during the early establishment of the A/P axis at late blastula and early gastrula. We establish experimental support for a conserved role of Wnt signaling in the early specification of the A/P axis during deuterostome body plan diversification, and further build support for an ancestral role of this pathway in early evolution of the bilaterian A/P axis. We find strong support for a role of cWnt in suppression of anterior fates and promotion of mid-axial fates, but we find no evidence that cWnt signaling plays a role in the early specification of the most posterior axial fates in S. kowalevskii. This posterior autonomy may be a conserved feature of early deuterostome axis specification.
Categories: Biology, Journals

Bowel cancer test may be a much better way to screen for polyps

Genetics - 12 hours 45 min ago
A new blood test seems to be more than twice as good at detecting bowel cancer than the method currently used to screen for polyps and early bowel cancer
Categories: Biology

Bowel cancer test may be a much better way to screen for polyps

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - 12 hours 45 min ago
A new blood test seems to be more than twice as good at detecting bowel cancer than the method currently used to screen for polyps and early bowel cancer
Categories: Science and society

Johann Hari doesn’t know depression’s real causes – no one does

Genetics - Tue, 2018-01-16 19:22
Taking a view on unsettled science is always likely to cause controversy, but the fiery debate Johann Hari's new book has sparked is worth having, says Samantha Murphy
Categories: Biology

Johann Hari doesn’t know depression’s real causes – no one does

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Tue, 2018-01-16 19:22
Taking a view on unsettled science is always likely to cause controversy, but the fiery debate Johann Hari's new book has sparked is worth having, says Samantha Murphy
Categories: Science and society

No sweat: Is yoga a proper workout?

Genetics - Tue, 2018-01-16 19:15
For some it’s spiritualist mumbo-jumbo. But while other disciplines will get you fitter faster, the psychological upsides of yoga are hard to deny
Categories: Biology

No sweat: Is yoga a proper workout?

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Tue, 2018-01-16 19:15
For some it’s spiritualist mumbo-jumbo. But while other disciplines will get you fitter faster, the psychological upsides of yoga are hard to deny
Categories: Science and society

You may be making cryptocurrency for hackers without realising

Genetics - Tue, 2018-01-16 19:09
Thousands of websites are tricking people into mining cryptocurrencies like bitcoin, adblockers might be the only way to stop them
Categories: Biology

You may be making cryptocurrency for hackers without realising

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Tue, 2018-01-16 19:09
Thousands of websites are tricking people into mining cryptocurrencies like bitcoin, adblockers might be the only way to stop them
Categories: Science and society

Tiny individual decisions really could help avert climate chaos

Genetics - Tue, 2018-01-16 17:40
A new computer model has shown individual decisions can massively influence how bad global warming might get. Time to take the human factor seriously, says Adam Corner
Categories: Biology

Tiny individual decisions really could help avert climate chaos

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Tue, 2018-01-16 17:40
A new computer model has shown individual decisions can massively influence how bad global warming might get. Time to take the human factor seriously, says Adam Corner
Categories: Science and society

A capsized oil tanker is releasing invisible toxins into the sea

Genetics - Tue, 2018-01-16 17:00
The slick of oil condensate from a stricken tanker in the East China Sea is a threat to all marine life, not least because it is invisible
Categories: Biology

A capsized oil tanker is releasing invisible toxins into the sea

HIV and AIDS - Tue, 2018-01-16 17:00
The slick of oil condensate from a stricken tanker in the East China Sea is a threat to all marine life, not least because it is invisible

A capsized oil tanker is releasing invisible toxins into the sea

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Tue, 2018-01-16 17:00
The slick of oil condensate from a stricken tanker in the East China Sea is a threat to all marine life, not least because it is invisible
Categories: Science and society

Unearthed: Why we’ve got monuments like Stonehenge all wrong

Genetics - Tue, 2018-01-16 17:00
From Stone Age circles to Easter Island’s statues, majestic prehistoric monuments may be far less to do with gods, kings or the heavens than we thought
Categories: Biology

Unearthed: Why we’ve got monuments like Stonehenge all wrong

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Tue, 2018-01-16 17:00
From Stone Age circles to Easter Island’s statues, majestic prehistoric monuments may be far less to do with gods, kings or the heavens than we thought
Categories: Science and society

No sweat: Does high-intensity interval training work?

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - Tue, 2018-01-16 15:00
Get fit in 4-minute bursts – that’s what high-intensity exercise enthusiasts preach. A false vision – or a legitimate shortcut to a healthier you?
Categories: Science and society